Emission of Terahertz Radiation from Two-Dimensional Electron Systems in Semiconductor Nano- and Hetero-Structures
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This paper reviews recent advances in emission of terahertz radiation from two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in semiconductor nano-heterostructures. 2D plasmon resonance is first presented to demonstrate intense broadband terahertz emission from InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs and InAlAs/InGaAs/InP material systems. The device structure is based on a high-electron mobility transistor and incorporates the author’s original interdigitated dual-grating gates. Second topic focuses on graphene, a monolayer carbon-atomic honeycomb lattice crystal, exhibiting unique carrier transport and optical properties owing to massless and gapless energy spectrum. Coherent stimulated terahertz emission from femtosecond infrared-laser pumped epitaxial graphene is experimentally observed, reflecting the occurrence of negative dynamic conductivity and population inversion.