Colonialism and Domestic Life: Identities and Foodways in Huarochirí During the Inka Empire

  • Carla Hernández GaravitoEmail author
  • Carlos Osores Mendives


Before the arrival of the Spanish, Andean populations were in the process of redefining their own community and ethnic identities following incorporation into the Inka Empire. During the Inka period (1450–1532 CE), new domestic spaces were built in the highland region of Huarochirí. However, this change did not imply a substantial transformation of domestic life or consumption practices. Through archaeological excavations, architectural, ceramic, and zooarchaeological spatial analysis, we argue that everyday domestic life in Ampugasa was not strongly impacted by the Inka presence. Rather, architectural changes and domestic consumption patterns were built upon local practices already existing in Huarochirí.


Identity Spatial analysis Inka colonialism Huarochirí Domestic life 



The authors would like to thank the guest editors of this issue, Scotti Norman and Sarah Kennedy, for organizing the session at the Society for American Anthropology 82nd Annual Meeting in Vancouver, B.C., in 2017 where the preliminary version of this paper was presented. This paper was greatly improved by incisive and detailed comments of Tamara Bray, Kylie Quave, and Parker VanValkenburgh. Scotti Norman read previous versions of this paper and was instrumental in the final copy editing and style revisions. Hernández would also like to thank Tom D. Dillehay and Steven A. Wernke, who have read draft versions of this paper and whose comments have increasingly improved its quality. Osores would like to thank the director of the Museo Nacional de Sicán, Carlos Elera, for allowing the comparative use of the museum’s faunal collection. Research in Ampugasa was completed by two grants awarded to Hernández: Wenner-Gren Foundation Dissertation Fieldwork Grant, and National Science Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Award (BCS-1540467). Initial spatial analysis was conducted under a Mellon Graduate Fellowship at the Center for the Digital Humanities at Vanderbilt University. Last minute additions and bibliographic updates were possible with support from Junior Fellowship of Pre-Columbian Studies at the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection awarded to Hernández for the 2018–2019 year.


  1. Acuto, F. A. (2005). The materiality of Inka domination: landscape, spectacle, memory, and ancestors. In Funrari, P. P., Zarankin, A., and Stovel, E. (eds.), Global Archaeological Theory: Contextual Voices and Contemporary Thoughts. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, pp. 211–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, C. J. (2002). The Hold Life Has: Coca and Cultural Identity in an Andean Community. 2nd ed. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. Arkush, E. N. (2011). Hillforts of the Ancient Andes: Colla Warfare, Society, and Landscape. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arkush, E. N. and Tung, T. A. (2013). Patterns of war in the Andes from the archaic to the late horizon: insights from settlement patterns and cranial trauma. Journal of Archaeological Research 24(1): 307–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauer, B. (1996). Legitimization of the state in Inca myth and ritual. American Anthropologist 98(2): 327–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonavia, D. (1970). El arte rupestre de Cuchimachay. El Serrano 19(253): 18–19.Google Scholar
  7. Bray, T. L. (2003). The Archaeology and Politics of Food and Feasting in Early States and Empires. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bray, T. L. (2014). The Archaeology of Wak’as: Explorations of the Sacred in the Pre-Columbian Andes. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  9. Bueno, A. (2012). Prospecciones arqueológicas en la Cuenca Del Río Lurín 1970–1993. Investigaciones Sociales 16(29): 13–28.Google Scholar
  10. Burger, R. L., Morris, C., and Matos, R. (eds.) (2007). Variations in the Expression of Inka Power: A Symposium at Dumbarton Oaks, 18 and 19 October 1997. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Harvard University Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  11. Chase, Z. (2014). What is a wak’a? When is a wak’a? In Bray, T. L. ed., The Archaeology of Wak’as: Explorations of the Sacred in the Precolumbian Andes. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  12. Chase, Z. (2018). The Inca state and local ritual landscapes. In Alconini, S. and Covey, A. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Incas. 1st ed. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 519–540.Google Scholar
  13. Chase, Z., Enrrique Paredes, L., Traslaviña, A. and Imbertis, A. (2011). Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica: Proyecto Arqueológico Huarochirí-Lurín Alto. Informe Técnico Final. Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica Huarochirí-Lurín Alto (PAHLA), Lima.Google Scholar
  14. Cook, N. D. (1981). Demographic Collapse, Indian Peru, 1520–1620. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Covey, A. R. (2015). Kinship and the Inca imperial core: multiscalar archaeological patterns in the Sacred Valley (Cuzco, Peru). Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 40: 183–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. van Dalen, P. (2014). Arqueología de Las Cuencas Alto y Medio Andinas Del Departamento de Lima. Fondo Editorial de la UNMSM; Vicerrectorado de Investigación UNMSM; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales UNMSM, Lima.Google Scholar
  17. D’Altroy, T. (1992). Provincial Power in the Inka Empire. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  18. D’Altroy, T. (2015). The Incas. 2nd ed. Wiley Blackwell, Malden.Google Scholar
  19. D’Altroy, T. and Bishop, R. L. (1990). The provincial organization of Inka ceramic production. American Antiquity 55(1): 120–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Altroy, T., Earle, T. K., and Browman, D. L. (1985). Staple finance, wealth finance, and storage in the Inka political economy. Current Anthropology 26(2): 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dávila Briceño, D. (1965 [1586]). Descripción y relación de la provincia de los Yauyos Toda, Anan Yauyos y Lorin Yauyos, hecha por Diego Dávila Briceño, Corregidor de Huarochirí. In Marcos Jiménez de la Espada and José Urbano Martínez, (eds.), Relaciones Geográficas de Indias: Perú. Ministerio de Fomento de España, Madrid.Google Scholar
  22. Dietler, M. (2010). Archaeologies of Colonialism: Consumption, Entanglement, and Violence in Ancient Mediterranean France. University of California Press, Berkeley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dillehay, T. D. (1977). Tawantinsuyu integration of the Chillón valley, Peru: a case of Inca geo-political mastery. Journal of Field Archaeology 4(4): 397–405.Google Scholar
  24. Dillehay, T. D. ed. (2014). The Teleoscopic Polity: Andean Patriarchy and Materiality. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Durston, A. (2007). Notes on the authorship of the Huarochirí manuscript. Colonial Latin American Review 16(2): 227–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Durston, A. (2011). Rectification to "notes on the authorship of the Huarochirí manuscript". Colonial Latin American Review 20(2): 249–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Enríquez, E. (2014). Resultados preliminares de las investigaciones arqueológicas y puesta en uso social del paisaje cultural Huamanmarca, Caranía - Yauyos. In van Dalen, P. ed., Arqueología de Las Cuencas Alto y Medio Andinas Del Departamento de Lima. Fondo Editorial de la UNMSM; Vicerrectorado de Investigación UNMSM; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales UNMSM, Lima, pp. 83–100.Google Scholar
  28. Espinoza, W. (1997). Etnías del Valle de Rímac durante la era del Tahuantinsuyu. Primera parte. Revista de Historia, Arte y Sociedad 11: 23–85.Google Scholar
  29. Farfán, C. (2010). Poder simbólico y poder político del estado Inca en la Cordillera Del Pariacaca. In Romero Velarde, R. and Svendsen, T. P. (eds.), Arqueología En El Perú: Nuevos Aportes Para El Estudio de Las Sociedades Andinas Prehispánicas. Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal - Anheb Impresiones, Lima, pp. 377–413.Google Scholar
  30. Feltham, P. J. (2005). Yungas and Yauyos - the interface between archaeology and ethnohistory as seen from the Lurin valley. In Eeckhout, P. and Le Fort, G. (eds.), Wars and Conflicts in Prehispanic Mesoamerica and the Andes: Selected Proceedings of the Conference Organized by the Société Des Américanistes de Belgique with the Collaboration of Wayleb (European Association of Mayanists). John and Erica Hedges, Oxford, pp. 128–145.Google Scholar
  31. Garrido, F. (2016). Rethinking imperial infrastructure: a bottom-up perspective on the Inca road. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 43: 94–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. González Holguín, D. (1952). Vocabulario de la lengua general de todo el Perú llamada lengua qquichua o del Inca. Edición del Instituto de Historia, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.Google Scholar
  33. Gosden, C. (2004). Archaeology and Colonialism. Cultural Contact from 5000 BC to the Present. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  34. Heggarty, P. (2008). Linguistics for archaeologists: a case-study in the Andes. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 18: 35–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hernández, C. (2013). Construyendo La Provincia de Pariacaca: Interacción y Ritual En La Organización y Reestructuración de Huarochirí Durante Los Periodos Tardíos. Paper presented at the Simposio “El Manuscrito Quechua de Huarochirí,” Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  36. Ixer, R., Lunt, S., Sillar, B., and Thompson, P. (2014). Microscopic rocks and expansive empires: investigating Inca ceramics from Cuzco, Peru. Archaeology International 17: 122–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jimenez, M. (2008). Biodiversidad. Official site. Programa Arqueologico Valle de Pachacamac.
  38. Julien, C. (2012). Identidad y filiación por Suyu en el Imperio Incaico. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP 6: 11–22.Google Scholar
  39. Julien, C. (1988). How Inca decimal administration worked. Ethnohistory 35(3): 257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kennedy, S. A. and VanValkenburgh, P. (2016). Zooarchaeology and changing food practices at Carrizales, Peru following the Spanish invasion. International Journal of Historical Archaeology 20(1): 73–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kohut, L. E. (2016). Cooperation Through War: Late Intermediate Period Warfare and Community Formation in the South-Central Andes. Doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
  42. Kolp-Godoy, M., Palma, M., Enríquez, E., Fernández, A., and Makowski, K. (2014). Salud en el Horizonte Tardío: pastores y agricultores de Pueblo Viejo - Pucará y Huamanmarca (Perú). Revista Jangwa Pana 13: 100–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. La Torre, F. and Caja, C. (2005). El Qhapaq Ñan en la ruta del Chinchaysuyu entre Xauxa y Pachacamac, Vol. II. In Reconocimiento y Registro Del Entorno Territorial Del Qhapaq Ñan. Edited by Proyecto Qhapaq Ñan. Dirección de Estudios sobre Paisaje Cultural. Instituto Nacional de Cultura, Lima, Peru.Google Scholar
  44. Liebmann, M. and Murphy, M. S. (eds.) (2011). Enduring Conquests: Rethinking the Archaeology of Resistance to Spanish Colonialism in the Americas. School for Advanced Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  45. Lorandi, A. M. and Rodriguez, L. (2003). Yanas y Mitimaes: alteraciones Incaicas en el mapa etnico Andino. In Lorandi, A. M., Salazar-Soler, C., and Wachtel, N. (eds.), Los Andes, Cincuenta Años Depués (1953–2003): Homenaje a John Murra. Pontif. Univ. Catolica del Peru, Lima, pp. 129–170.Google Scholar
  46. MacNeish, R. S., Patterson, T. C., and Browman, D. L. (1975). The Central Peruvian prehistoric interaction sphere. Robert S. Peabody Foundation for Archaeology, Andover, MA.Google Scholar
  47. Makowski, K., Ghezzi, I., and Neff, H. (2011). Redes de producción e intercambio en el Horizonte Tardío: caracterización con LA-TOF-ICP-MS e INAA de arcillas y estilos cerámicos en la costa central del Perú. In Vetter, L., Vega-Centeno, R., Olivera, P., and Petrick, S. (eds.), II Congreso Latinoamericano de Arqueometría. IPEN, UNI, OEI, Lima, pp. 263–274.Google Scholar
  48. Makowski, K. and Oré Menéndez, G. M. (2014). Alfareros de aquí o de allá: identidad estilística y tecnológica en el Valle de Pachacamac (Costa Central Peruana). Revista Española de Antropología Americana, 43(2): 515–536.Google Scholar
  49. Malpass, M. A. (1993). Provincial Inca: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Assessment of the Impact of the Inca State. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malpass, M. A. and Alconini, S. (2010). Distant Provinces in the Inka Empire: Toward a Deeper Understanding of Inka Imperialism. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marcone, G. and López-Hurtado, E. (2015). Dual strategies of the rural elites: exploring the intersection of regional and local transformations in the Lurin Valley, Peru. Latin American Antiquity 26(3): 401–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Miasta, J. (2006). Arqueología Histórica En Huarochirí: Santo Domingo de Los Olleros, San José de Los Chorrillos, y San Lorenzo de Quinti. 1st ed. CONCYTEC, Lima, Perú.Google Scholar
  53. Moore, J. D. (2018). Andean statecraft before the Incas. In Alconini, S. and Covey, A. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Incas. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 31–54.Google Scholar
  54. Mumford, J. R. (2012). Vertical Empire: The General Resettlement of Indians in the Colonial Andes. Duke University Press, Durham.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nair, S. (2015). Space and time in the architecture of Inca royal estates. In A. F. Aveni ed., The Measurement of Time in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, D.C., pp. 119–139.Google Scholar
  56. Netherly, P. (1977). Local Level Lords in the North Coast of Peru. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.Google Scholar
  57. Ogburn, D. E. (2008). Becoming Saraguro: ethnogenesis in the context of Inca and Spanish colonialism. Ethnohistory 55(2): 287–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Osores, C. (2016). Informe de Análisis Zooarqueológico Del Proyecto de Investigación Arqueológica Sierras de Lurín. Unpublished report, Lima.Google Scholar
  59. Pease, F. (1992). Curacas, Reciprocidad y Riqueza. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.Google Scholar
  60. Ramón, G. (1999). Producción alfarera en Santo Domingo de Los Olleros (Huarochirí - Lima). Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Études Andines 28(2): 215–248.Google Scholar
  61. Reitz, E. J. (1988). Faunal remains from Paloma, an archaic site in Peru. American Anthropologist 90(2): 310–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Reitz, E. J. and Wing, E. S. (2008). Zooarchaeology. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rostworowski, M. (1988). Conflicts Over Coca Fields in XVIth-Century Perú. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  64. Roymans, N. (2004). Ethnic Identity and Imperial Power: The Batavians in the Early Roman Empire. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Salomon, F. (1991). Introductory essay: the Huarochiri manuscript. In Solomon, F. and Urioste, G., eds., The Huarochiri Manuscript. A Testament of Ancient and Colonial Andean Religion. University of Texas Press, Austin, pp. 1–38.Google Scholar
  66. Salomon, F. (1998). How the huacas were: the language of substance and transformation in the Huarochirí Quechua manuscript. Anthropology and Aesthetics 33: 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Salomon, F. (2008). Huarochirí manuscript. In Pillsbury, J. (ed.), Guide to Documentary Sources for Andean Studies, 1530–1900. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, pp. 296–303.Google Scholar
  68. Salomon, F. and Urioste, G. (eds.) (1991). The Huarochiri Manuscript: A Testament of Ancient and Colonial Andean Religion. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  69. Sauer, J. J. (2014). The Archaeology and Ethnohistory of Araucanian Resilience. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Schjellerup, I. (2005). Incas y Españoles En La Conquista de Los Chachapoyas. Travaux de l’Institut Français d’études Andines, 200. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Fondo Editorial, IFEA Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, Lima.Google Scholar
  71. Scott, J. C. (1998). Seeing Like a STATE: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  72. Shimada, I. (ed.) (2015). The Inka Empire: A Multidisciplinary Approach. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  73. Silverblatt, I. M. (1987). Moon, Sun, and Witches Gender Ideologies and Class in Inca and Colonial Peru. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  74. Spalding, K. (1984). Huarochirí, an Andean Society under Inca and Spanish Rule. Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  75. Stein, G. (2005). The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters: Comparative Perspectives. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe.Google Scholar
  76. Stern, S. J. (1995). The variety and ambiguity of native Andean intervention in European colonial markets. In Larson, B., Harris, O., and Tandeter, E. (eds.), Ethnicity, Markets, and Migration in the Andes: At the Crossroads of History and Anthropology. Duke University Press, Durham, pp. 73–100.Google Scholar
  77. Taylor, G. (1987). Ritos y Tradiciones de Huarochirí: Manuscrito Quechua de Comienzos Del Siglo XVII. Antonio Acosta (ed.) bilingüe quechua normalizado-castellano. Travaux de l’Institut Français d’études Andines, Institut français d’études andines – IEP, Lima.Google Scholar
  78. Urton, G. (1990). The History of a Myth: Pacariqtambo and the Origin of the Inkas. 1st ed. University of Texas Press, Austin.Google Scholar
  79. Valcárcel, L. E., Engel, F., and Muelle, J. et al. (1963). Informe Sobre Los Monumentos Arqueológicos de Lima. Bib. IRA 985.013 J89, Lima: [s.n.].Google Scholar
  80. Villar Córdova, P. E. (1982). Arqueología Del Departamento de Lima. 2nd ed. Ediciones Atusparia, Lima.Google Scholar
  81. Weismantel, M. (2006). Ayllu. Real and imagined communities in the Andes. In Creed, G. W. (ed.), The Seductions of Community. Emancipations, Oppressions, Quandaries. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, pp. 77–100.Google Scholar
  82. Wernke, S. A. (2007). Negotiating community and landscape in the Peruvian Andes: a transconquest view. American Anthropologist 109(1): 130–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wernke, S. A. (2013). Negotiated Settlements: Andean Communities and Landscape Under Inka and Spanish Colonialism. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. White, T. E. (1953). A method of calculating the dietary percentage of various food animals utilized by aboriginal peoples. American Antiquity 18(4): 396–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ziólkowski, M. S. (1997). La guerra de los Wawquis. Los objetivos y los mecanismos de la rivalidad dentro de la elite Inka, siglos XV-XVI. Coleccion Biblioteca Abya-Yala 41.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carla Hernández Garavito
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Carlos Osores Mendives
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and CollectionWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.Museo Nacional de SicánLambayequePeru
  4. 4.Urbanización Los ParquesChiclayoPeru

Personalised recommendations