Online Project-Based Learning and Formative Assessment
Project-based learning (PBL) involves a highly complex and learner-centered approach. It relies on formative assessment (FA) with ongoing feedback to help learners move through the PBL process to the eventual co-construction of a shared artefact. Conversation and discussion are central to the process. However, in a face-to-face context of learning, they are difficult to capture for later review or reflection as part of FA. This study investigates the role that technology might play in addressing this limitation using online PBL and FA in a media-creation course in a Thai university. Participants were undergraduate, pre-service teachers preparing to teach English as a foreign language. Objectives included the local design and implementation of online PBL and FA; identification of pre-service teachers’ (n = 28) post-implementation perceptions of the convenience, benefits and barriers of this form of learning; perceptions of their PBL skills and; post-implementation measures of PBL knowledge and skills compared with learners participating in a face-to-face section of the course (n = 30). Results revealed that the technology provided a foundational scaffold to support both the learners’ and the instructor’s activity and interaction. The design of a simple learning management system with communication and file-sharing tools supported not only the learners, but the instructor, not only the assessment, but the learning. Learners’ perceptions were positive and post-implementation measures of PBL knowledge and skill were significantly higher for the online section.
KeywordsOnline formative assessment Project-based learning E-portfolio Learning management system Higher education
- Bienkowski, M., Feng, M., & Means, B. (2012). Enhancing teaching and learning through educational data mining and learning analytics: An issue brief U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Technology. Retrieved from https://tech.ed.gov/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/edm-la-brief.pdf. Accessed March 2018.
- Bransford, J. D., Brown, A. L., & Cocking, R. R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind experience, and school (Expanded ed.). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Bulunuz, N., Bulunuz, M., Karagoz, F., & Tavsanli, Ö. F. (2016). Achievement levels of middle school students in the standardized science and technology exam and formative assessment probes: A comparative study. Journal of Education in Science, Environment and Health (JESEH), 2(1), 33–50. https://doi.org/10.21891/jeseh.07449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cambridge, D., Cambridge, B., & Yancey, K. B. (2009). Electronic portfolios 2.0: Emergent research on implementation. Sterling, VA: Stylus.Google Scholar
- Ecclestone, K. (2010). Transforming formative assessment in lifelong learning. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
- Gaytan, J., & McEwen, B. C. (2007). Effective online instructional and assessment strategies. American Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 117–132. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6c63/5c6fb43f6cce190198c75a08c7f722764904.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guàrdia, L., Crisp, G., & Alsina, I. (2017). Trends and challenges of e-assessment to enhance student learning in higher education. In E. Cano & G. Ion (Eds.), Innovative practices for higher education assessment and measurement (pp. 36–56). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-0531-0.ch003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from https://www.routledge.com/Visible-Learning-A-Synthesis-of-Over-800-Meta-Analyses-Relating-to-Achievement/Hattie/p/book/9780415476188.
- Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from https://www.routledge.com/Visible-Learning-for-Teachers-Maximizing-Impact-on-Learning/Hattie/p/book/9780415690157.
- JISC. (2008). Effective practice with e-portfolios. Bristol: JISC. Retrieved from http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/effectivepracticeeportfolios.pdf.
- Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., & Haywood, K. (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report. Austin, TX: New Media Consortium. Retrieved from https://www.nmc.org/pdf/2011-Horizon-Report.pdf.
- Khalil, M., Taraghi, B., & Ebner, M. (2016). Engaging learning analytics in MOOCS: The good, the bad, and the ugly. International conference on education and new developments 2016 (pp. 1–5). Retrieved from https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.03776.
- Koneru, I. (2017). Exploring Moodle functionality for managing open distance learning e-assessments. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, 18(4), 1302–6488. Retrieved from http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/yonetim/icerik/makaleler/1527-published.pdf.
- Mor, Y., Mellar, H., Pachler, N., & Daly, C. (2010). Formative e-assessment: Case stories, design patterns and future scenarios. In C. Kohls & J. Wedekind (Eds.), Problems investigations of E-learning patterns: Context factors, problems and solutions (pp. 199–219). Hershey, PA: IGI. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/33f9/9ff2761c85bf96e2daa6fc3cc546cc567fa8.pdf.
- Narciss, S. (2008). Feedback strategies for interactive learning tasks. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. J. G. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from http://www.aect.org/edtech/ed1/.
- Nguyen, Q., Rienties, B., & Toetenel, L. (2017). Mixing and matching learning design and learning analytics. In P. Zaphiris & A. Ioannou (Eds.), Learning and collaboration technologies: Forth international conference, Vancouver, BC, July 9–14, 2017 (Vol. 10296, pp. 1–15). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58515-4_24.
- Pachler, N., Mellar, H., Daly, C., Mor, Y., Wiliam, D., & Laurillard, D. (2009). Scoping a vision for formative e-assessment: A project report for JISC. JISC. Retrieved from http://eprints.ioe.ac.uk/18783/1/RB26_FEASST_Pachler.pdf
- Prineas, M., & Cini, M. (2011). Assessing learning in online education. Retrieved from http://www.learningoutcomeassessment.org/documents/onlineed.pdf. Accessed March 2018.
- Ripley, M. (2009). Review of advanced e-assessment (RAeAT) final report. Retrieved from http://community.dur.ac.uk/smart.centre1/jiscdirectory/media/JISC%20RAeAT%20Final%20Report%20-%20v2.0.pdf. Accessed March 2018.
- Ritzhaupt, A. D., & Singh, O. (2006). Student perspectives of eportfolios in computing education. Retrieved from https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1185483. Accessed March 2018.
- Sharples, M., de Roock, R., Ferguson, R., Gaved, M., Herodotou, C., Koh, E., Kukulska-Hulme, A., Looi, C-K., McAndrew, P., Rienties, B., Weller, M., & Wong, L. H. (2016). Innovating pedagogy 2016: Open university innovation report 5. Milton Keynes: The Open University. Retrieved from: https://www.repository.nie.edu.sg/bitstream/10497/18319/3/IP_2016_OUIR5.pdf.
- Smart, V., Sim, C., & Finger, G. (2015). Professional standards based digital portfolios vs. evidence based digital portfolios: Recommendations for creative, interesting and long-lasting digital portfolios. In Proceedings of the society for information technology and teacher education international conference 2015 (Vol. 1, pp. 1875–1882). Retrieved from https://www.editlib.org/p/150256/.
- Solomon, G. (2003). Project-based learning: A primer. Technology & Learning, 23(6), 20–26. Retrieved from http://pennstate.swsd.wikispaces.net/file/view/PBL-Primer-www_techlearning_com.pdf.
- Spector, J. M. (2016). Smart learning environments: Concepts and issues. In Proceedings of SITE 2016 Savannah (pp. 2728–2737). GA: SITE. Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/172078/.
- Spector, J. M., Ifenthaler, D., Samspon, D., Yang, L., Mukama, E., Warusavitarana, A., Lokuge Dona, K., Eichhorn, K., Fluck, A., Huang, R., Bridges, S., Lu, J., Ren, Y., Gui, X., Deneen, C. C., San Diego, J., & Gibson, D. C. (2016). Technology enhanced formative assessment for 21st century learning. Educational Technology and Society, 19(3), 58–71. Retrieved from http://www.ifets.info/journals/19_3/7.pdf.
- Stödberg, U. (2012). A research review of e-assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 37(5), 591–604. Retrieved from http://www.ifets.info/journals/19_3/7.pdf.
- Stoller, L. S. (1997). Project work: A means to promote language content. English Teachers’ Journal (Israel), 35(4), 2–18. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ595058.
- Thomas, J. (2000). A review of research on project based learning. Retrieved from http://www.bobpearlman.org/bestpractices/PBL_Research.pdf. Accessed March 2018.
- Whitelock, D. M. (2007). Computer assisted formative assessment: Supporting students to become more reflective learners. In C. P. Constantinou, Z. C. Zacharia & M. Papaevripidou (Eds.), Proceedings of the 8th international conference on computer based learning in science (CBLIS’07) (pp. 492–504). Crete, Greece: E-Media, University of Crete. ISBN: 9963-671-06-3, 978-9963-671-06-9Google Scholar