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Inflammation

pp 1–11 | Cite as

Chloroquine and 3-Methyladenine Attenuates Periodontal Inflammation and Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis

  • Shasha He
  • Qian Zhou
  • Binyan Luo
  • Bin Chen
  • Lingjun Li
  • Fuhua YanEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Periodontitis is an inflammation characterized by alveolar bone resorption caused by imbalance in bone homeostasis. It is known that autophagy is related to inflammation and bone metabolism. However, whether autophagy inhibitors could be used for periodontitis in animal models remains unknown. We investigated the role of two classical autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ), on the development of rat experimental periodontitis in terms of the bone loss (micro-CT), the number of inflammatory cells (hematoxylin and eosin staining), and the osteoclastic activity (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining). Expression of autophagy-related genes and nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3 (LC3) were analyzed by Western blot. To further observe the effect of autophagy inhibitors on osteoclasts (OCs) in vitro, bone marrow–derived mononuclear macrophages were used. Together, these findings indicated that topical administration of 3-MA or CQ reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis. Furthermore, 3-MA and CQ may attenuate activation of OCs by autophagy. Therefore, 3MA and CQ may have prophylactic and therapeutic potential for inflammation and alveolar bone resorption in periodontitis in the future.

KEY WORDS

experimental periodontitis autophagy chloroquine 3-methyladenine osteoclasts 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Central Laboratory of Stomatology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University.

Funding Information

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation Project (No. 81400521, 81771078) and the Nanjing Medical Science and Technique Development Foundation (QRX17177).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All experimental procedures described in this study have been approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Nanjing University and were carried out in accordance with the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of laboratory animals.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Periodontology, Nanjing Stomatological HospitalMedical School of Nanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Endodontics, Nanjing Stomatological HospitalMedical School of Nanjing UniversityNanjingChina

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