Pharmacological Characterization of Mouse Hind Paw Edema Induced by Parachartergus fraternus Venom
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Stings from the wasp Parachartergus fraternus occur throughout Latin America, and edema followed by pain is the main symptom presented by victims. This often limited inflammatory event has not been characterized for this species. In this work, we identified the mechanisms and possible mediators involved in this response. P. fraternus venom (100, 200, and 400 μg/kg) was injected into the hind paws of mice, and edema was evaluated at intervals of 10 min for up to 60 min and at 120, 240, and 1440 min using a digital plethysmometer. The peak of edema was observed at 10 min with a dose of 200 μg/kg. A reduction in edema was observed with indomethacin (58.1%), celecoxib (44.5%), MK886 (30.8%), and dexamethasone (53.2%). Loratadine, cimetidine, and cyproheptadine treatment reduced the edema by 54.2%, 63.9%, and 84.4%, respectively, compared with the control. Captopril and l-NAME inhibited 42.5% and 69.8%, respectively, of the edema. These results showed that the edema induced in mice by P. fraternus venom occurs early and is mediated by arachidonic acid derivatives, vasoactive amines, and nitric oxide. Together, these mediators amplify the inflammatory process, with emphasis on histamine and serotonin in triggering the edematogenic response, being more effective the use of cyproheptadine in the therapeutic approach.
KEY WORDSwasp venom receptor antagonists inflammatory mediators
Acknowledgment is given to Andreia Biolchi Mayer for the assistance in the collection of the P. fraternus specimens.
This study was funded by the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)—Finance Code 001 and scholarship 1655328.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Experimentation of the UFMS (protocol 764/2016) and were conducted in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Regulations on the Use and Care of Animals for Scientific Purposes.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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