, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 1252–1264 | Cite as

Semaphorin 3F Promotes Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes in the Inflammatory Response After Survived Cardiac Arrest

  • Stephanie Reichert
  • Stefanie Scheid
  • Tina Roth
  • Marius Herkel
  • Diana Petrova
  • Alexandra Linden
  • Miki Weberbauer
  • Jennifer Esser
  • Philipp Diehl
  • Sebastian Grundmann
  • Hans-Jörg Busch
  • Katrin Fink
  • Christoph Bode
  • Martin Moser
  • Thomas HelbingEmail author


Leukocyte transmigration through the blood vessel wall is a fundamental step of the inflammatory response and requires expression of adhesion molecule PECAM-1. Accumulating evidence implicates that semaphorin (Sema) 3F and its receptor neuropilin (NRP) 2 are central regulators in vascular biology. Herein, we assess the role of Sema3F in leukocyte migration in vitro and in vivo. To determine the impact of Sema3F on leukocyte recruitment in vivo, we used the thioglycollate-induced peritonitis model. After the induction of peritonitis, C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected daily with recombinant Sema3F or solvent for 3 days. Compared with solvent-treated controls, leukocyte count was increased in the peritoneal lavage of Sema3F-treated mice indicating that Sema3F promotes leukocyte extravasation into the peritoneal cavity. In line with this observation, stimulation of human endothelial cells with Sema3F enhanced the passage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) through the endothelial monolayer in the transwell migration assays. Conversely, silencing of endothelial Sema3F by siRNA transfection dampened diapedesis of PBMCs through the endothelium in vitro. xMechanistically, Sema3F induced upregulation of adhesion molecule PECAM-1 in endothelial cells and in murine heart tissue shown by immunofluorescence and western blotting. The inhibition of PECAM-1 by blocking antibody HEC7 blunted Sema3F-induced leukocyte migration in transwell assays. SiRNA-based NRP2 knockdown reduced PECAM-1 expression and migration of PBMCs in Sema3F-treated endothelial cells, indicating that PECAM-1 expression and leukocyte migration in response to Sema3F depend on endothelial NRP2. To assess the regulation of Sema3F in human inflammatory disease, we collected serum samples of patients from day 0 to day 7 after survived out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA, n = 41). First, we demonstrated enhanced migration of PBMCs through endothelial cells exposed to the serum of patients after OHCA in comparison to the serum of patients with stable coronary artery disease or healthy volunteers. Remarkably, serum samples of OHCA patients contained significantly higher Sema3F protein levels compared with CAD patients (CAD, n = 37) and healthy volunteers (n = 11), suggesting a role of Sema3F in the pathophysiology of the inflammatory response after OHCA. Subgroup analysis revealed that elevated serum Sema3F levels after ROSC are associated with decreased survival, myocardial dysfunction, and prolonged vasopressor therapy, clinical findings that determine the outcome of post-resuscitation period after OHCA. The present study provides novel evidence that endothelial Sema3F controls leukocyte recruitment through a NRP2/PECAM-1-dependent mechanism. Sema3F serum concentrations are elevated following successful resuscitation suggesting that Sema3F might be involved in the inflammatory response after survived OHCA. Targeting the Sema3F/NRP2/PECAM-1 pathway could provide a novel approach to abolish overwhelming inflammation after resuscitation.


inflammation leukocyte transmigration semaphorin 3F neuropilin-2 PECAM-1 



We are indebted to Jessica Beckert for her outstanding technical assistance.


This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft to T. H. (HE 7432/1-1) and to M. M. (973/8-1).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed in studies involving murine or human tissues were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution and/or national research.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Reichert
    • 1
  • Stefanie Scheid
    • 1
  • Tina Roth
    • 1
  • Marius Herkel
    • 1
  • Diana Petrova
    • 1
  • Alexandra Linden
    • 1
  • Miki Weberbauer
    • 1
  • Jennifer Esser
    • 1
  • Philipp Diehl
    • 1
  • Sebastian Grundmann
    • 1
  • Hans-Jörg Busch
    • 2
  • Katrin Fink
    • 2
  • Christoph Bode
    • 1
  • Martin Moser
    • 1
  • Thomas Helbing
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cardiology and Angiology IHeart Center Freiburg University, Faculty of Medicine, University of FreiburgFreiburg im BreisgauGermany
  2. 2.Department of Emergency MedicineUniversity Hospital of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of FreiburgFreiburg im BreisgauGermany

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