, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 1025–1038 | Cite as

Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice

  • Ashok JangraEmail author
  • Mohit Kwatra
  • Tavleen Singh
  • Rajat Pant
  • Pawan Kushwah
  • Yogita Sharma
  • Babita Saroha
  • Ashok Kumar Datusalia
  • Babul Kumar Bezbaruah


The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits.


depression anxiety curcumin piperine oxido-nitrostative stress 



We would like to thank the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Government of India, for financial support. The authors are immensely thankful to the Institutional Level Biotech hub, NIPER Guwahati for providing technical support.


  1. 1.
    Jangra, A., M.M. Lukhi, K. Sulakhiya, et al. 2014. Protective effect of mangiferin against lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviour in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology 740: 337–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization (2012). Retrieved from
  3. 3.
    Hurley, L.L., and Y. Tizabi. 2013. Neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and depression. Neurotoxicology Research 23: 131–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Uher, R., O. Mors, M. Rietschel, et al. 2011. Early and delayed onset of response to antidepressants in individual trajectories of change during treatment of major depression: a secondary analysis of data from the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72: 1478–1484.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sriram, C.S., A. Jangra, S.S. Gurjar, et al. 2015. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibitor, 3-aminobenzamide pretreatment ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies in mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior 133: 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Manji, H.K., W.C. Drevets, and D.S. Charney. 2001. The cellular neurobiology of depression. Nature Medicine 7: 541–547.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maes, M., R. Yirmyia, J. Noraberg, et al. 2009. The inflammatory & neurodegenerative (I&ND) hypothesis of depression: leads for future research and new drug developments in depression. Metabolic Brain Disease 24: 27–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Raison, C.L., and A.H. Miller. 2011. Is depression an inflammatory disorder? Current Psychiatry Reports 13: 467–475.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leonard, B., and M. Maes. 2012. Mechanistic explanations how cell-mediated immune activation, inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways and their sequels and concomitants play a role in the pathophysiology of unipolar depression. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 36: 764–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu, Y., R.C. Ho, and A. Mak. 2012. Interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) are elevated in patients with major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Journal of Affective Disorders 139: 230–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leonard, B.E., and A. Myint. 2006. Inflammation and depression: is there a causal connection with dementia? Neurotoxicology Research 10: 149–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hemmerle, A.M., J.P. Herman, and K.B. Seroogy. 2012. Stress, depression and Parkinson’s disease. Experimental Neurology 233: 79–86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Song, C., and H. Wang. 2011. Cytokines mediated inflammation and decreased neurogenesis in animal models of depression. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 35: 760–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Godbout, J.P., J. Chen, J. Abraham, et al. 2005. Exaggerated neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in aged mice following activation of the peripheral innate immune system. FASEB Journal 19: 1329–1331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huang, Y., C.J. Henry, R. Dantzer, et al. 2007. Exaggerated sickness behavior and brain proinflammatory cytokine expression in aged mice in response to intracerebroventricular lipopolysaccharide. Neurobiology of Aging 29: 1744–1753.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sugino, K., K. Dohi, K. Yamada, et al. 1987. The role of lipid peroxidation in endotoxin-induced hepatic damage and the protective effect of antioxidants. Surgery 101: 746–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guan, Z., and J. Fang. 2006. Peripheral immune activation by lipopolysaccharide decreases neurotrophins in the cortex and hippocampus in rats. Brain Behavior and Immunity 20: 64–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Singh, S., S. Jamwal, and P. Kumar. 2015. Piperine enhances the protective effect of curcumin against 3-NP induced neurotoxicity: possible neurotransmitters modulation mechanism. Neurochemical Research 40: 1758–1766.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Noorafshan, A., and S. Ashkani-Esfahani. 2013. A review of therapeutic effects of curcumin. Current Pharmaceutical Design 19: 2032–2046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Srimal, R.C., and B.N. Dhawan. 1973. Pharmacology of diferuloyl methane (curcumin), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 25: 447–452.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kiso, Y., Y. Suzuki, N. Watanabe, et al. 1983. Antihepatotoxic principles of Curcuma longa rhizomes. Planta Medica 49: 185–187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ruby, A.J., G. Kuttan, K.D. Babu, et al. 1995. Anti-tumour and antioxidant activity of natural curcuminoids. Cancer Letter. 94: 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Venkatesan, N., D. Punithavathi, and V. Arumugam. 2000. Curcumin prevents adriamycin nephrotoxicity in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology 129: 231–234.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Calabrese, V., T.E. Bates, C. Mancuso, et al. 2008. Curcumin and the cellular stress response in free radical-related diseases. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 52: 1062–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    De, R., P. Kundu, S. Swarnakar, et al. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin against Helicobacter pylori isolates from India and during infections in mice. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 53: 1592–1597.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nafisi, S., M. Adelzadeh, Z. Norouzi, et al. 2009. Curcumin binding to DNA and RNA. DNA Cell Biology 28: 201–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xu, Y., D. Lin, S. Li, et al. 2009. Curcumin reverses impaired cognition and neuronal plasticity induced by chronic stress. Neuropharmacology 57: 463–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mancuso, C., R. Siciliano, E. Barone, et al. 2012. Natural substances and Alzheimer’s disease: from preclinical studies to evidence based medicine. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1822: 616–624.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kumar, A., S. Dogra, and A. Prakash. 2009. Protective effect of curcumin (Curcuma longa), against aluminium toxicity: Possible behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats. Behavioural Brain Research 205: 384–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pattanaik, S., D. Hota, and S. Prabhakar. 2009. Pharmacokinetic interaction of single dose of piperine with steady-state carbamazepine in epilepsy patients. Phytotherapy Research 23: 1281–1286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rinwa, P., and A. Kumar. 2012. Piperine potentiates the protective effects of curcumin against chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in mice. Brain Research 1488: 38–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Espejo, E.F. 1997. Effects of weekly or daily exposure to the elevated plus-maze in male mice. Behavioral Brain Research 87: 233–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bassi, G.S., A. Kanashiro, F.M. Santin, et al. 2012. Lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behaviour evaluated in different models of anxiety and innate fear in rats. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 110: 359–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lacosta, S., Z. Merali, and H. Anisman. 1999. Behavioral and neurochemical consequences of lipopolysaccharide in mice: anxiogenic-like effects. Brain Research 818: 291–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Steru, L., R. Chermat, B. Thierry, et al. 1985. The tail suspension test: a new method for screening antidepressants in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 85: 367–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Porsolt, R., A. Bertin, and M. Jalfre. 1977. Behavioral despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie 229: 327–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jangra, A., A.K. Datusalia, S. Khandwe, et al. 2013. Amelioration of diabetes-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes by melatonin and nicotinamide: implication of oxidative stress-PARP pathway. Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior 114–115: 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Beutler, E., O. Duron, and B.M. Kelly. 1963. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 61: 882–888.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lowry, O.H., N.J. Rosebrough, A.L. Farr, et al. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193: 265–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Green, L.C., D.A. Wagner, J. Glogowski, et al. 1982. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Analytical Biochemistry 126: 131–138.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maes, M. 1995. Evidence for an immune response in major depression: a review and hypothesis. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 19: 11–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dunbar, P., J. Hill, T. Neale, et al. 1992. Neopterin measurement provides evidence of altered cell-mediated immunity in patients with depression, but not with schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 22: 1051–1057.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hestad, K.A., S. Tønseth, C.D. Støen, et al. 2003. Raised plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor [alpha] in patients with depression: normalization during electroconvulsive therapy. Journal ECT 19: 183–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Moylan, S., M. Maes, N.R. Wray, et al. 2012. The neuroprogressive nature of major depressive disorder: pathways to disease evolution and resistance, and therapeutic implications. Molecular Psychiatry 18: 595–606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Swiergiel, A.H., and A.J. Dunn. 2007. Effects of interleukin-1β and lipopolysaccharide on behavior of mice in the elevated plus-maze and open field tests. Pharmacology Biochemistry Behavior 86: 651–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Biesmans, S., T.F. Meert, J.A. Bouwknecht, et al. 2013. Systemic immune activation leads to neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in mice. Mediators of inflammation 2013:2013:271359.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sriram, C.S., A. Jangra, S.S. Gurjar, et al. 2016. Edaravone abrogates LPS-induced behavioral anomalies, neuroinflammation and PARP-1. Physiology Behavior. 154: 135–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sulakhiya, K., G.P. Keshavlal, B.B. Bezbaruah, et al. 2016. Lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in mice are prevented by chronic pre-treatment of esculetin. Neuroscience Letters 611: 106–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lawson, M.A., J.M. Parrott, R.H. McCusker, et al. 2013. Intracerebroventricular administration of lipopolysaccharide induces indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-dependent depression-like behaviors. Journal of Neuroinflammation 10: 87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dantzer, R., J.C. O’Connor, G.G. Freund, et al. 2008. From inflammation to sickness and depression: when the immune system subjugates the brain. Nature Review of Neuroscience 9: 46–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    O’Connor, J.C., M.A. Lawson, C. André, et al. 2009. Lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior is mediated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in mice. Molecular Psychiatry 14: 511–522.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Walker, A.K., D.P. Budac, S. Bisulco, et al. 2013. NMDA receptor blockade by ketamine abrogates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 38: 1609–1616.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Berkenbosch, F., J. van Oers, A. del Rey, et al. 1987. Corticotropin-releasing factor producing neurons in the rat activated by interleukin-1. Science 238: 524–526.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Reichenberg, A., T. Kraus, M. Haack, et al. 2002. Endotoxin-induced changes in food consumption in healthy volunteers are associated with TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion. Psychoneuroendocrinology 27: 945–956.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sulakhiya, K., P. Kumar, A. Jangra, et al. 2014. Honokiol abrogates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive like behavior by impeding neuroinflammation and oxido-nitrosative stress in mice. European Journal of Pharmacolology 744: 124–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jiang, H., Z. Wang, Y. Wang, et al. 2013. Antidepressant-like effects of curcumin in chronic mild stress of rats: involvement of its anti-inflammatory action. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 47: 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rinwa, P., A. Kumar, and S. Garg. 2013. Suppression of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascade by curcumin alone and in combination with piperine in rat model of olfactory bulbectomy induced depression. PLoS One 8, e61052.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sharma, O.P. 1976. Antioxidant activity of curcumin and related compounds. Biochemical Pharmacology 25: 1811–1812.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sidhu, G.S., A.K. Singh, D. Thaloor, et al. 1998. Enhancement of wound healing by curcumin in animals. Wound Repair and Regeneration 6: 167–177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Negi, P.S., G.K. Jayaprakasha, R. Jagan Mohan, et al. 1999. Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: a byproduct from curcumin manufacture. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 4297–4300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mukerjee, A., and J.K. Vishwanatha. 2009. Formulation, characterization and evaluation of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanospheres for cancer therapy. Anticancer Research 29: 3867–3875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shaikh, J., D.D. Ankola, V. Beniwal, et al. 2009. Nanoparticle encapsulation improves oral bioavailability of curcumin by at least 9-fold when compared to curcumin administered with piperine as absorption enhancer. European Journal Pharmaceutical Science 37: 223–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Takahashi, M., S. Uechi, K. Takara, et al. 2009. Evaluation of an oral carrier system in rats: bioavailability and antioxidant properties of liposome-encapsulated curcumin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57: 9141–9146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Klippstein, R., J.T. Wang, R.I. El-Gogary, et al. 2015. Passively targeted curcumin-loaded PEGylated PLGA nanocapsules for colon cancer therapy in vivo. Small 11: 4704–4722.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Anand, P., A.B. Kunnumakkara, R.A. Newman, et al. 2007. Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Molecular Pharmacology 4: 807–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kesarwani, K., and R. Gupta. 2013. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 3: 253–266.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rinwa, P., and A. Kumar. 2013. Quercetin along with piperine prevents cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation associated with mouse model of chronic unpredictable stress. Archives of Pharmacal Research 2013: 2013.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Atal, C.K., R.K. Dubey, and J.J. Singh. 1985. Biochemical basis of enhanced drug bioavailability by piperine: evidence that piperine is a potent inhibitor of drug metabolism. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 232: 258–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Prasad, S., A.K. Tyagi, and B.B. Aggarwal. 2014. Recent developments in delivery, bioavailability, absorption and metabolism of curcumin: the golden pigment from golden spice. Cancer Research and Treatment 46: 2–18.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Clementi, E., G.C. Brown, M. Feelisch, et al. 1998. Persistent inhibition of cell respiration by nitric oxide: crucial role of S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial complex I and protective action of glutathione. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 7631–7636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jezek, P., and L. Hlavata. 2005. Mitochondria in homeostasis of reactive oxygen species in cell, tissues, and organism. International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 37: 2478–2503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lijuan, B., X. Zhang, L. Xiaohong, et al. 2015. Somatostatin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neurodegeneration in the rat substantia nigra by inhibiting the activation of microglia. Molecular Medicine Report 12: 1002–1008.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Miller, A.H., V. Maletic, and C.L. Raison. 2009. Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Biological psychiatry 65: 732–741.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Betancur, C., J. Borrell, and C. Guaza. 1995. Cytokine regulation of corticosteroid receptors in the rat hippocampus: effects of interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor and Lipopolysaccharide. Neuroendocrinology 62: 47–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Reincke, M., B. Allolio, G. Würth, et al. 1993. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in critical illness: response to dexamethasone and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 77: 151–156.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Beishuizen, A., and L.G. Thijs. 2003. Endotoxin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Journal of Endotoxin Research 9: 3–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Erkut, Z.A., E. Endert, I. Huitinga, et al. 2002. Cortisol is increased in postmortem cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients: relationship with cytokines and sepsis. Multiple Sclerosis 8: 229–236.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Cubała, W.J., and J. Landowski. 2005. Serotoninergic system and limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (LHPA axis) in depression. Psychiatria polska 40: 415–430.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sen, S., R. Duman, and G. Sanacora. 2008. Serum BDNF, depression and anti-depressant medications: meta-analyses and implications. Biological Psychiatry 64: 527–532.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Basterzi, A.D., K. Yazici, E. Aslan, et al. 2009. Effects of fluoxetine and venlafaxine on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in depressed patients. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 33: 281–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Varambally, S., G.H. Naveen, M.G. Rao, et al. 2013. Low serum brain derived neurotrophic factor in non-suicidal out-patients with depression: relation to depression scores. Indian Journal of Psychiatry 55(Suppl 3): S397–S399.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Xu, Y., B.S. Ku, L. Tie, et al. 2006. Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis. BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREB. Brain Research. 1122: 56–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Li, S., C. Wang, M. Wang, et al. 2007. Antidepressant like effects of piperine in chronic mild stress treated mice and its possible mechanisms. Life Sciences 15: 1373–1381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Jacobsen, J.P., and A. Mørk. 2006. Chronic corticosterone decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal cortex of the rat. Brain Research 1110: 221–225.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Huang, Z., X.M. Zhong, Z.Y. Li, et al. 2011. Curcumin reverses corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior and decrease in brain BDNF levels in rats. Neuroscience Letters 493: 145–148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jangra, A., S. Dwivedi, C.S. Sriram, et al. 2015. Honokiol abrogates chronic restraint stress-induced cognitive impairment and depressive-like behaviour by blocking endoplasmic reticulum stress in the hippocampus of mice. European Journal of Pharmacology 770: 25–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jangra, A., C.S. Sriram, S. Dwivedi, et al. 2016. Sodium Phenylbutyrate and Edaravone Abrogate Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Behavioral Deficits: Implication of Oxido-Nitrosative, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cascade, and Neuroinflammation. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. doi: 10.1007/s10571-016-0344-5.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashok Jangra
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohit Kwatra
    • 1
  • Tavleen Singh
    • 1
  • Rajat Pant
    • 1
  • Pawan Kushwah
    • 1
  • Yogita Sharma
    • 1
  • Babita Saroha
    • 2
  • Ashok Kumar Datusalia
    • 3
  • Babul Kumar Bezbaruah
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyLaboratory of Neuroscience, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and ResearchGuwahatiIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyUniversity Institute of Engineering & Technology (UIET), Maharishi Dayanand UniversityRohtakIndia
  3. 3.National Brain Research CentreManesar, GurgaonIndia
  4. 4.Department of PharmacologyGauhati Medical CollegeGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations