Protective Effects of Embelin on Myocardial Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury Following Cardiac Arrest in a Rabbit Model
- 344 Downloads
Embelin has been used to treat fever and inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Although reports indicate that embelin has antiinflammatory effects, its effects on myocardial injury following cardiac arrest (CA) have not been previously explored. In this study, we aim to investigate the protective effects of embelin on myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) following CA in a rabbit model. Pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) cytokines, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), necrosis ratio, apoptotic index (AI), hemodynamics, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, and histological damage have been measured or evaluated. Embelin reverts TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 to basal levels and reduces the serum level of cTnI, the necrosis ratio, the AI, and the expression of NF-κB p65. Meanwhile, it improves the hemodynamics and myocardial function. Moreover, embelin-treated groups also showed improved myocardial morphology. Our results indicate that embelin may protect the heart against myocardial IRI following CA via its antiinflammatory abilities.
KEY WORDSembelin antiinflammatory effects cardiac arrest myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury
We would like to thank the Center for Animal Experiment for the assistance in animal study.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 5.Kapoor, V.K., A.S. Chawla, M. Kumar, et al. 1983. Anti-inflammatory agent in Indian Laboratories. Indian Drugs 30: 481–488.Google Scholar
- 13.Ahn, K.S., G. Sethi, and B.B. Aggarwal. 2007. Embelin, an inhibitor of X chromosome-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein, blocks nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway leading to suppression of NF-kappaB-regulated antiapoptotic and metastatic gene products. Mol Pharmacol 71: 209–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Nolan, J.P., R.W. Neumar, C. Adrie, et al. 2010. Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication: a scientific statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke (Part II). Int Emerg Nurs 18: 8–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar