p-Cymene Modulates In Vitro and In Vivo Cytokine Production by Inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB Activation
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The present study was designed to investigate the effects of p-cymene on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine production both in vitro and in vivo. The production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and C57BL/6 mice was evaluated by sandwich ELISA. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of cytokine genes were examined in vitro by semiquantitative RT-PCR. In a further study, we analyzed the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by western blotting. We found that p-cymene significantly regulated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the levels of relative mRNAs were also found to be downregulated. In in vivo trail, p-cymene markedly suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-1β and increased IL-10 secretion. We also found that p-cymene inhibited LPS-induced activation of extracellular signal receptor-activated kinase 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IκBα. These results suggest that p-cymene may have a potential anti-inflammatory action on cytokine production by blocking NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.
KEY WORDSp-cymene inflammation LPS MAPKs NF-κB
The authors thank the National Nature Science Foundation of China (no. 3097221) and the Chinese postdoctoral station of Jilin University (no. 20090461034) for their great support in financing these researches.
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