Inflammation

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 959–966 | Cite as

Chlorophyll Revisited: Anti-inflammatory Activities of Chlorophyll a and Inhibition of Expression of TNF-α Gene by the Same

  • Appian Subramoniam
  • Velikkakathu V. Asha
  • Sadasivan Ajikumaran Nair
  • Sreejith P. Sasidharan
  • Parameswaran K. Sureshkumar
  • Krishnan Nair Rajendran
  • Devarajan Karunagaran
  • Krishnan Ramalingam
Article

Abstract

In view of the folklore use of green leaves to treat inflammation, the anti-inflammatory property of chlorophylls and their degradation products were studied. Chlorophyll a and pheophytin a (magnesium-free chlorophyll a) from fresh leaves showed potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and formalin-induced paw edema in rats. Chlorophyll a inhibited bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) gene expression in HEK293 cells, but it did not influence the expression of inducible nitric acid synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 genes. Chlorophyll b only marginally inhibited both inflammation and TNF-α gene expression. But both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b showed the same level of marginal inhibition on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-induced NF-κB activation. Chlorophylls and pheophytins showed in vitro anti-oxidant activity. The study shows that chlorophyll a and its degradation products are valuable and abundantly available anti-inflammatory agents and promising for the development of phytomedicine or conventional medicine to treat inflammation and related diseases.

KEY WORDS

pheophytin a paw edema nuclear factor-κB Streblus asper Lour. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. King & Robin 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Appian Subramoniam
    • 1
  • Velikkakathu V. Asha
    • 2
  • Sadasivan Ajikumaran Nair
    • 1
  • Sreejith P. Sasidharan
    • 2
  • Parameswaran K. Sureshkumar
    • 1
  • Krishnan Nair Rajendran
    • 3
  • Devarajan Karunagaran
    • 4
  • Krishnan Ramalingam
    • 4
  1. 1.Phytochemistry and Phytopharmacology DivisionTropical Botanic Garden and Research InstitutePalodeIndia
  2. 2.Rajiv Gandhi Centre for BiotechnologyPoojapuraIndia
  3. 3.Health and Research CentreKumarapuramIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

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