Advertisement

Inflammation

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 822–827 | Cite as

Anti-inflammation Effects of Corn Silk in a Rat Model of Carrageenin-Induced Pleurisy

  • Guang-Qiang Wang
  • Tao Xu
  • Xue-Mei Bu
  • Bao-Yi Liu
Article

Abstract

Pleurisy is an inflammation of the pleural layers that surround the lungs. Despite much research into inflammatory diseases, no drugs with favorable safety profiles are available yet for their treatment. Corn silk has been used in many parts of the world for the treatment of edema, cystitis, gout, kidney stones nephritis, and prostitutes. However, no scientific reports on the anti-inflammatory effects of corn silk were so far available. To test the anti-inflammatory efficacy of corn silk extract (CSEX) in a rat model of carrageenin (Cg)-induced pleurisy, exudate formation, and cellular infiltration, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), vascular endothelial growth factor alpha (VEGF-α), interleukin-17 (IL-17), C3 and C4 complement protein levels, adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, and total antioxidant activity were studied, respectively. Pretreatment with CSEX reduced Cg-induced pleurisy exudate, number of leukocytes, oxidative stress, C3 protein level, and O 2 levels at the inflammatory site. Pretreatment with CSEX also inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, VEGF-α, and IL-17A and blocked inflammation-related events (ICAM-1 and iNOS) by activation of NF-κB. Supplementation with CSEX may be a promising treatment for inflammatory diseases that involve oxidative stress.

KEY WORDS

inflammation pleurisy corn silk carrageenin exudate 

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    Kass, S.M., P.M. Williams, and B.V. Reamy. 2007. Pleurisy. American Family Physician 75: 1357–1364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Velazquez, D.V.O., H.S. Xavier, J.E.M. Batista, and C. de Castro-Chavas. 2005. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats. Phytomedicine 12: 363–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Namba, T., H. Xu, S. Kadota, M. Hattori, T. Takahashi, and Y. Kojima. 1993. Inhibition of IgE formation in mice by glycoproteins from corn silk. Phytotherapy Research 7: 227–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tang, L., X. Ding, L. You, W. Gu, and F. Yu. 1995. Bio-activesubstances from corn silk. Wuxi Qinggong Daxue Xuebao 14: 319–324. in Chinese.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abdel-Wahab, S.M., N.D. El-Tanbouly, H.A. Kassem, and E.A. Mohamed. 2002. Phytochemical and biological study of corn silk (styles and stigmas of Zea mays L.). Bulletin of the Faculty Pharmaceutical 40: 93–102.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guevara, P., M.C. Perez-Amador, B. Zuniga, and M. Snook. 2000. Flavones in corn silks and resistance to insect attacks. Phyton 69: 151–156.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zeringue, H.J. 2000. Identification and effects of maize silk volatiles on cultures of Aspergillus flavus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48: 921–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grases, F., J.G. March, M. Ramis, and A. Costa-Bauza. 1993. The influence of Zea mays on urinary risk factors for kidney stones in rats. Phytotherapy Research 7: 146–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Newal, C.A., L.A. Anderson, and J.D. Phillipson. 1996. Herbal medicine: a guide for health-care professionals, 90. London: Pharmaceutical Press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saleh, T.S., J.B. Calixto, and Y.S. Medeiros. 1996. Anti-inflammatory effects of theophylline, cromolyn and salbutamol in a murine model of pleurisy. British Journal of Pharmacology 118: 811–819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cai, Z., Y. Pang, S. Lin, and P.G. Rhodes. 2003. Differential roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta in lipopolysaccharide-induced brain injury in the neonatal rat. Brain Research 975: 37–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laight, D.W., P.T. Gunnarsson, A.V. Kaw, and M.J. Carrier. 1999. Physiological microassay of plasma total antioxidant status in a model of endothelial dysfunction in the rat following experimental oxidant stress in vivo. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 7: 27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moore, A.R. 2003. Pleural models of inflammation: immune and nonimmune. Methods in Molecular Biology 225: 123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Noppen, M., M. De Waele, K. Vandergucht, et al. 2000. Volume and cellular content of pleural fluid in humans examined by pleural lavage. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 162: 1023–1026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Light, R.W. 1995. Pleural diseases, 3rd ed, 7–17. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Calcagni, E., and I. Elenkov. 2006. Stress system activity, innate and T helper cytokines, and susceptibility to immune-related diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1069: 62–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schiller, M., D. Metze, T.A. Luger, S. Grabbe, and M. Gunzer. 2006. Immune response modifiers-mode of action. Experimental Dermatology 15: 331–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Annunziato, F., L. Cosmi, F. Liotta, E. Maggi, and S. Romagnani. 2008. The phenotype of human Th17 cells and their precursors, the cytokines that mediate their differentiation and the role of Th17 cells in inlammation. International Immunology 20: 1361–1368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stow, J.L., P. Ching Low, C. Offenhauser, and D. Sangermani. 2009. Cytokine secretion in macrophages and other cells: pathways and mediators. Immunobiology 214: 601–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vega, V.L., M. Maldonado, L. Mardones, et al. 1998. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis aggravates hepatic oxidative stress and enhances superoxide dismutase inactivation in rats subjected to tourniquet shock. Shock 9: 320–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ndengele, M.M., C. Muscoli, Z.Q. Wang, T.M. Doyle, G.M. Matuschak, and D. Salvemini. 2005. Superoxide potentiates NF-κB activation and modulates endotoxin-induced cytokine production in alveolar macrophages. Shock 23: 186–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lorne, E., J.W. Zmijewski, X. Zhao, et al. 2008. Role of extracellular superoxide in neutrophil activation: interactions between xanthine oxidase and TLR4 induce proinflammatory cytokine production. American Journal of Physiology 294: 985–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sen, C.K., and L. Packer. 1996. Antioxidant and redox regulation of gene transcription. The FASEB Journal 10: 709–720.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abraham, E. 2000. NF-kappaB activation. Critical Care Medicine 28: 100–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cakosiñski, I., M. Dobrzyñski, M. Cakosiñska, E. Seweryn, A. Bronowicka-Szydeko, K. Dzierzba, I. Ceremuga, and A. Gamian. 2009. Characterization of an inflammatory response (Polish). Postepy Higieny I Medycyny Doswiadczalnej 63: 395–408.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clancy, R.M., A.R. Amin, and S.B. Abramson. 1998. The role of nitric oxide in inflammation and immunity. Arthritis and Rheumatism 41: 1141–1151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yaren, H., H. Mollaoglu, B. Kurt, et al. 2007. Lung toxicity of nitrogen mustard may be mediated by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in rats. Research in Veterinary Science 83: 116–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guang-Qiang Wang
    • 1
  • Tao Xu
    • 1
  • Xue-Mei Bu
    • 1
  • Bao-Yi Liu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RespiratoryThe Affiliated Hospital of Medical College Qingdao UniversityQingdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of RespiratoryQilu Hospital of Shandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations