, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 671–683 | Cite as

Neutrophilic Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in Premenopausal Women Chronically Exposed to Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Burning

  • Anirban Banerjee
  • Nandan Kumar Mondal
  • Debangshu Das
  • Manas Ranjan Ray


The possibility of inflammation and neutrophil activation in response to indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use has been investigated. For this, 142 premenopausal, never-smoking women (median age, 34 years) who cook exclusively with biomass (wood, dung, crop wastes) and 126 age-matched control women who cook with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were enrolled. The neutrophil count in blood and sputum was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in biomass users than the control group. Flow cytometric analysis revealed marked increase in the surface expression of CD35 (complement receptor-1), CD16 (FCγ receptor III), and β2 Mac-1 integrin (CD11b/CD18) on circulating neutrophils of biomass users. Besides, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that they had 72%, 67%, and 54% higher plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-12, respectively, and doubled neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8. Immunocytochemical study revealed significantly higher percentage of airway neutrophils expressing inducible nitric oxide synthase, while the serum level of nitric oxide was doubled in women who cooked with biomass. Spectrophotometric analysis documented higher myeloperoxidase activity in circulating neutrophils of biomass users, suggesting neutrophil activation. Flow cytometry showed excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes of biomass-using women, whereas their erythrocytes contained a depleted level of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Indoor air of biomass-using households had two to four times more particulate matter with diameters of <10 μm (PM10) and <2.5 μm (PM2.5) as measured by real-time laser photometer. After controlling potential confounders, rise in proinflammatory mediators among biomass users were positively associated with PM10 and PM2.5 in indoor air, suggesting a close relationship between IAP and neutrophil activation. Besides, the levels of neutrophil activation and inflammation markers were positively associated with generation of ROS and negatively with SOD, indicating a role of oxidative stress in mediating neutrophilic inflammatory response following chronic inhalation of biomass smoke.


biomass fuel neutrophil inflammation oxidative stress premenopausal women India 



acid citrate dextrose


biomass fuel


bovine serum albumin


dichlorofluorescein diacetate


ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid


enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay


fluorescence-activated cell sorter


fluorescein isothiocyanate


horseradish peroxidase


indoor air pollution






inducible nitric oxide synthase


liquefied petroleum gas


mean fluorescence intensity




nitric oxide




phosphate-buffered saline




particulate matter


reactive oxygen species


superoxide dismutase


tumor necrosis factor



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support received from Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi in carrying out this study.

Conflicts of interest statement

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anirban Banerjee
    • 1
  • Nandan Kumar Mondal
    • 1
  • Debangshu Das
    • 1
  • Manas Ranjan Ray
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental HematologyChittaranjan National Cancer InstituteKolkataIndia

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