Comparison of Pulmonary Inflammatory and Antioxidant Responses to Intranasal Live and Heat-Killed Streptococcus pneumoniae in Mice
Inflammatory and antioxidant responses, in male C57Bl6J mice, to single intranasal inoculations with live or heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae were studied in order to tease out differences in responses. Heat-killed bacteria elicited weak lung neutrophil infiltration and raised concentrations (peak 6–8 h), in serum or lung tissue, of CXCL1 and 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor, with later increases in CCL2 and IL-1β. Live bacteria induced profound pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and acute chemokine/cytokine elevations. After 72–96 h, live S. pneumoniae induced a delayed rise in chemokines CXCL2 and CCL2, preceded by increases in TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 and mononuclear infiltration of lungs. With both live and heat-killed bacteria, alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages were the main sources of TNFα and IL-1β. Only live bacteria caused an acute decrease in lung glutathione peroxidase, an increase in superoxide dismutase, and a sustained increase in serum amyloid protein A. Acute innate immune responses to live and heat-killed S. pneumoniae are similar. In response to live bacteria, inflammation is greater, accompanied by changes in antioxidant enzymes and has an additional, later mononuclear component.
KEY WORDSS. pneumoniae infection murine lung inflammation pro-inflammatory cytokines antioxidant enzymes
We thank Željko Javorščak, Vedran Vrban, Slavica Skender, Ksenija Štajcer and Marija Škalic for excellent technical assistance.
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