Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 843, Issue 1, pp 211–215 | Cite as

Correction to: Morphological and taxonomic demarcation of Brachionus asplanchnoidis Charin within the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex (Rotifera, Monogononta)

  • Evangelia MichaloudiEmail author
  • Scott Mills
  • Spiros Papakostas
  • Claus-Peter Stelzer
  • Alexander Triantafyllidis
  • Ilias Kappas
  • Kalliopi Vasileiadou
  • Konstantinos Proios
  • Theodore John Abatzopoulos
Correction

Correction to: Hydrobiologia (2017) 796:19–37  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-016-2924-2

The authors of the original publication recognized that, for three of the clones (MAN-L5, LFL2, KOR), the data of two of the raw morphometric measurements contained in Supplementary Material 2 of the article were flipped (the distance between the anterior tips of the 3rd dorsal spines ‘b’ and the width of the lorica ‘c’). The corrected Supplementary material 2 is provided here. As a consequence, the principal components analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were repeated, and the corrected version of Fig. 3, Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7 are also provided here.
Fig. 3

Analysis of the association between species delimitation and morphometry. A Representation of sample score averages of each of the studied clones along the first two axes of the principal components analysis (PC1 explained 71.14% and PC2 explained 8.89% of the recorded variation) performed on the morphometric data. Error bars represent variation between individuals of the same clone (twice the standard error of the mean). B Scatterplot showing the discrimination of species groups based on the canonical discriminant functions of the discriminant analysis performed on all measured individuals. Error bars represent variation between individuals of the same clone (twice the standard error of the mean). C Distribution of the number of individuals of Brachionus asplanchnoidis and the rest of the L group members along the discriminant axis obtained from morphometric data. The bars shown under the x axis do not represent negative values. D Box-and-whisker plot of r (width of the medial sinus of the anteroventral margin) for the four species ASP, Brachionus asplanchnoidis; PLI, B. plicatilis; MAN, B. manjavacas; NEV, B. ‘Nevada’

Table 4

Stepwise discriminant analysis of the Brachionus body measurements

Measurement

Function 1

Function 2

Coefficient

Correlation

Coefficient

Correlation

a

− 0.505

0.050

− 2.321

0.184

b

0.110

0.084

0.901

0.316

c

1.687

0.047

1.761

0.243

g

0.146

0.059

1.119

0.395

l

− 0.777

− 0.064

0.080

0.141

o

− 0.242

0.039

0.319

0.316

p

− 0.855

− 0.170

− 1.257

− 0.037

r

1.066

0.697

− 0.471

− 0.240

Eigenvalue

3.631

 

0.749

 

% Variance

78.3

 

16.2

 

Values of the first two canonical functions are shown. Coefficient: standardized coefficient for the canonical discriminant function. Correlation: pooled within group correlation coefficient between the body measurement and the canonical discriminant function

Table 5

Classification functions of the stepwise discriminant analysis

Measurement

ASP

PLI

MAN

NEV

a

357.54

369.27

437.82

348.83

b

1792.56

1790.11

1742.75

1817.13

c

231.63

157.35

123.34

188.62

g

− 153.29

− 153.49

− 181.89

− 156.48

l

− 446.51

− 413.53

− 428.56

− 414.99

o

− 836.68

− 817.20

− 829.73

− 867.98

p

− 185.40

− 149.70

− 120.05

− 143.86

r

56.69

17.98

41.20

37.33

Constant

− 1449.36

− 1383.15

− 1377.82

− 1411.74

ASP, Brachionus asplanchnoidis; PLI, B. plicatilis; MAN, B. manjavacas; NEV, B. ‘Nevada’

Table 6

Measurements (in μm) (range, mean, St. Error) of the dimensions of the individuals that have been used for the morphometric analysis

Measurement

B. asplanchnoidis

B. plicatilis

Min

Max

Mean

SE

Min

Max

Mean

SE

a

185

510

295.12

8.14

219

374

283.63

6.38

b

82

166

126.12

1.85

98

143

122.36

1.72

c

138

342

206.58

4.82

158

282

203.62

5.49

e

12

46

26.64

0.75

21

34

27.33

0.42

g

6

28

14.42

0.45

10

19

13.74

0.31

j

17

51

31.11

0.82

24

37

30.35

0.51

i

89

175

130.88

2.12

102

159

132.44

2.13

k

10

31

19.41

0.43

16

28

21.48

0.43

l

12

42

23.86

0.67

17

33

25.42

0.59

m

53

119

80.02

1.31

55

90

76.79

1.22

n

13

38

24.41

0.48

17

34

25.17

0.61

o

21

57

34.17

0.70

25

44

34.29

0.71

p

17

51

33.37

0.70

29

47

37.66

0.73

q

24

75

34.75

0.68

21

40

30.06

0.64

r

20

51

31.12

0.64

5

23

12.47

0.86

Measurement

B. manjavacas

B. ‘Nevada’

Min

Max

Mean

SE

Min

Max

Mean

SE

a

216

288

256.28

3.90

192

266

241.27

5.96

b

91

122

109.37

1.75

99

132

116.83

2.31

c

146

202

177.67

2.62

139

200

175.08

4.28

e

16

29

21.74

0.52

17

31

23.66

0.87

g

7

12

10.04

0.28

9

18

12.83

0.53

j

20

32

25.56

0.61

20

33

26.24

0.73

i

99

138

125.09

1.91

114

140

127.19

2.35

k

13

21

17.64

0.45

16

24

20.20

0.63

l

13

26

22.42

0.62

17

27

23.10

0.79

m

56

82

68.17

1.41

57

92

70.59

2.18

n

15

28

23.90

0.57

20

31

24.86

0.67

o

25

35

29.38

0.63

24

36

28.02

0.80

p

26

41

36.37

0.66

32

43

36.62

0.80

q

23

34

28.85

0.59

24

32

29.06

0.57

r

13

28

19.69

0.93

7

28

20.25

1.28

Table 7

Results of ANOVA and post hoc Fisher LSD test for differences in lorica measurements identified as discriminating traits between the four species of Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

Measurement

Fisher LSD test

ANOVA

ASP

MAN

NEV

PLI

df

F

P

a

A

B

Β

Α

3

13.31

< 0.001

b

A

B

C

Α

3

16.59

< 0.001

c

A

B

Β

A

3

13.18

< 0.001

e

A

B

C

D

3

22.04

< 0.001

g

A

B

C

A C

3

26.56

< 0.001

j

A

B

Β

A

3

19.34

< 0.001

i

A

Α Β

Α

Α C

3

2.85

< 0.001

k

A

B

C

D

3

20.65

< 0.001

l

A

A

A

D

3

8.06

< 0.001

m

A

B

Β

D

3

19.07

< 0.001

n

A

A

Α

Α

3

1.73

< 0.001

o

A

B

Β

Α

3

27.81

< 0.001

p

A

B

B

B

3

18.11

< 0.001

q

A

B

B

B

3

26.01

< 0.001

r

A

B

B

D

3

182.71

< 0.001

Species with same letters did not differ significantly. ASP, Brachionus asplanchnoidis; PLI, B. plicatilis; MAN, B. manjavacas; NEV, B. ‘Nevada’

PCA explains a similar amount of the observed variation (PC1 71.14%, PC2 8.89%) and still clearly separates the clones of B. asplanchnoidis from the rest of the members of the L clade, revealing however a great degree of morphometric variability within the B. asplanchnoidis members (Fig. 3A). DA performed on the phylogenetically identified species also clearly separates B. asplanchnoidis from the rest of the species (Fig. 3B). Table 4 shows the results of the discriminant analysis where the classification factor was the four species of the L clade. Classification Functions 1 and 2 accounted for a similar amount of the total variance, 78.3% and 16.2%, respectively, revealing mainly two groups (Wilks’ Lambda = 0.454, χ2 = 158.61, df = 14, P < 0.001) (Fig. 3B). The variables weighting the most in the classification function 1 were the width of the medial sinus of the anteroventral margin (r) and the width of the lorica (c) (see correlation coefficient in Table 4). Cross-validation of the individuals’ classification based on the classification functions (Table 5) of the discriminant analysis correctly identified 96.6% B. asplanchnoidis individuals. Still, for the two groups, i.e., one group B. asplanchnoidis clones and the other group B. plicatilis, B. manjavacas, and B. ‘Nevada’ clones, identified in the discriminant analysis, some overlap was recorded of the scores of the discriminant functions (Fig. 3C). All measurements (Supplementary Material Table 2) covered a wide range of values within each species and exhibited great overlap (Table 6), while most of them differed significantly between species (Table 7). From the morphological analysis, the differences between B. asplanchnoidis and the rest of the representatives of the L clade concern the anteroventral margin which is more pronounced in the case of B. plicatilis (Fig. 3D). In B. asplanchnoidis, the medial sinus is much deeper and wider compared to B. plicatilis (r range 20–51 μm and 5–23 μm, respectively).

The main conclusions of this study remain the same. Brachionus asplanchnoidis differs compared to the rest of the representatives of the L clade of the B. plicatilis complex based on the medial sinus of the anteroventral margin, which is more pronounced in the case of, e.g., B. plicatilis (Fig. 3D). In B. asplanchnoidis, the medial sinus is much deeper and wider (r range 20–51 μm) compared to B. plicatilis (r range 5–23 μm). Furthermore, the structured orange peel-like surface is more closely spaced and less pronounced in B. asplanchnoidis compared to B. plicatilis (Fig. 5B, C). Nevertheless, as already pointed out by Fontaneto et al. (2007), the observed morphological differences are greater among the size clades of the B. plicatilis cryptic species complex than within each size group.

Notes

Supplementary material

10750_2019_4050_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (491 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 490 kb)

Reference

  1. Fontaneto, D., I. Giordani, G. Melone & M. Serra, 2007. Disentangling the morphological stasis in two rotifer species of the Brachionus plicatilis species complex. Hydrobiologia 583: 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evangelia Michaloudi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Scott Mills
    • 2
  • Spiros Papakostas
    • 3
  • Claus-Peter Stelzer
    • 4
  • Alexander Triantafyllidis
    • 5
  • Ilias Kappas
    • 5
  • Kalliopi Vasileiadou
    • 5
  • Konstantinos Proios
    • 1
  • Theodore John Abatzopoulos
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessaloníkiGreece
  2. 2.James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Division of Genetics and Physiology, Department of BiologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  4. 4.Research Institute for LimnologyUniversity of InnsbruckMondseeAustria
  5. 5.Department of Genetics, Development & Molecular BiologyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessaloníkiGreece

Personalised recommendations