On the origin of endemic stone charr in the Kamchatka River basin
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The Kamchatka River basin (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia) is populated by numerous anadromous and resident forms of charr, Salvelinus, including the endemic stone charr, a specialized predator that inhabits the river and its tributaries along with the Northern Dolly Varden. Nucleotide sequences of the entire gene sequence of cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase-1, control region and locus of the lactate dehydrogenase gene (LDH-C1) were used for analysis of stone charr differentiation and its phylogenetic relationships with other representatives of the Bering group (Northern Dolly Varden S. malma malma and white charr S. albus). The ratio of within- to between-population divergence of mtDNA nucleotide sequences was analogous to that previously reported for S. malma malma populations. The genealogy of mtDNA haplotypes and analysis of LDH-C1 gene confirms the affinity of stone charr and white charr to the Northern Dolly Varden phylogenetic group. Two divergent mtDNA lineages have been identified in the Kamchatka River basin, with stone charr and white charr being the main carriers of the haplotypes of a new identified group in this region. Evidence has been obtained for the common origin of stone charr from the Kamchatka River basin and Northern Dolly Varden from the Chukchi Peninsula and Alaska.
KeywordsSalvelinus Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA Northern Dolly Varden White charr Genealogy
We dedicate this article to the memory of the outstanding ichthyologist, our colleague and friend Igor Alexandrovich Chereshnev. Our deep appreciation is extended to V. A. Parensky (National Scientific Center of Marine Biology (NSCMB), FEB RAS) for providing two specimens of stone charr. We thank our colleagues S. V. Frolov (NSCMB FEB RAS) for providing the charr specimens from lakes Achchen and Nachikinskoe and from the Kamchatka, Paratunka, Raduga rivers, T. V. Malinina (Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, RAS, Moscow) for the specimens from the Taimyr Peninsula, P. K. Gudkov (deceased) for the specimens from Lake Sitasjaure, and P. A. Crane (Conservation Genetics Laboratory, 1011 E. Tudor Rd, Anchorage, Alaska, United States) for the specimens from the Frosty Creek, Kongakut River, and Floods Pond. We are also grateful to Tania Koznova (NSCMB FEB RAS) for her help in manuscript preparation, as well as to three anonymous reviewers for the valuable comments on the manuscript.
This study was financially supported in part by the Presidium of the Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (Grant no. 18-4-042).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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