Interannual hydrological variations and ecological phytoplankton patterns in Amazonian floodplain lakes
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Amazonian aquatic environments are complex, and their interaction promotes heterogeneous environments that in turn make it difficult to describe the development of patterns. Amazonian floodplain lakes have different environmental and biological responses in similar water periods due to the interannual variation. We evaluated if the interannual variations in the physical–chemical structure and the phytoplankton community promote environmentally and biologically contrasted conditions between similar hydrological periods. Phytoplankton community structure has differences between periods, but these differences do not necessarily promote dissimilarities. Most of the phytoplankton species belong to the same functional groups. The compositions of species and functional groups between sample units inside lakes are variable and may or may not have significant differences in dissimilarity, but both periods are equally heterogeneous. Beta diversity has shown that the replacement of species and functional groups causes a high level of variation between sites, which maintain a high heterogeneity between periods. These variations have different responses for different scales turning the interpretation of patterns for these environments a problematic task. Hence, scale and interannual variability are factors that need to be carefully considered when setting standards to describe the ecological dynamics of floodplain lakes in the Amazonian system.
KeywordsAmazonian wetlands Biodiversity Plankton Freshwater Ecology Beta diversity
The data used in this manuscript were acquired within the framework of the CARBAMA Project (funded by the white program from the French Research Agency ANR 2009–2012); and the CYMENT Project (funded by the RTRA/STAE foundation 2008–2011 supported by the International Joint Laboratory LMI OCE (IRD/University of Brasilia) funded by the IRD and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). The work also received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 691053. The first author is very grateful to the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes) for providing financial assistance. This article is part of the research activities of the project INCT No 16- 2014 ODISSEIA, with funding from CNPq/Capes/FAPDF.
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