, Volume 830, Issue 1, pp 33–44 | Cite as

Effects of lake restoration on breeding abundance of globally declining common pochard (Aythya ferina L.)

  • Anthony D. FoxEmail author
  • Thorsten J. S. Balsby
  • Hans E. Jørgensen
  • Torben L. Lauridsen
  • Erik Jeppesen
  • Martin Søndergaard
  • Karsten Fugl
  • Palle Myssen
  • Preben Clausen
Primary Research Paper


Common pochard Aythya ferina are rapidly declining globally, partly due to water quality change at breeding habitats. Lake restoration at two southern Danish lakes (external nutrient loading reduction, bream Abramis brama and roach Rutilus rutilus removal and stocking of pike Esox lucius) improved water clarity and submerged macrophyte cover. Nesting pochard on one lake increased from 2.3 females per annum pre-treatment to 13.9 afterwards and from 22.7 females to 99.6 post-treatment at a second. Numbers fell from 27.7 to 11.3 at a third untreated lake with consistently high water clarity, but which was colonised and became dominated by holly-leaved naiad Najas marina, which provides no food resources for breeding pochard. Linear modelling (controlling for serial autocorrelation) showed statistically significant effects of annual summer measurements of suspended solids (negative) and Secchi depth (positive) on pochard abundance at both restored lakes and chlorophyll (negative) at one of those lakes, but no effects at the third. Breeding pochard numbers also correlated positively with submerged macrophyte cover at one restored lake with adequate data. Results support the hypothesis that lake restoration to improve water quality enhances conditions for locally breeding pochard, as long as restored conditions secure appropriate submerged macrophyte communities for nesting pochard.


Abramis brama Common pochard Lake restoration Rutilus rutilus Reduced suspended solids Submerged macrophytes 



Thanks to the Aage V. Jensens Naturfond for financial support to analyse these data. EJ, TLL and MS were supported by the MARS project (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) funded under the 7th EU Framework Programme and AU Centre for Water Technology ( Thanks to Thomas Bregnballe and two anonymous referees for their help with this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony D. Fox
    • 1
    Email author
  • Thorsten J. S. Balsby
    • 1
  • Hans E. Jørgensen
    • 3
  • Torben L. Lauridsen
    • 2
  • Erik Jeppesen
    • 2
  • Martin Søndergaard
    • 2
  • Karsten Fugl
    • 4
  • Palle Myssen
    • 5
  • Preben Clausen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BioscienceAarhus University, KaløRøndeDenmark
  2. 2.Department of BioscienceAarhus UniversitySilkeborgDenmark
  3. 3.FrederikshusHaslevDenmark
  4. 4.MiljøstyrelsenNykøbing FDenmark
  5. 5.Centre for Plan og MiljøNæstvedDenmark

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