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Trophic niche segregation among herbivorous serrasalmids from rapids of the lower Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon

  • Marcelo C. Andrade
  • Daniel B. Fitzgerald
  • Kirk O. Winemiller
  • Priscilla S. Barbosa
  • Tommaso Giarrizzo
Primary Research Paper
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

In the Amazon Basin, several species of herbivorous serrasalmid fishes inhabit rapids, but it is unknown if they partition food resources during the annual low-water period when fish densities are high within greatly reduced volume of aquatic habitat. We investigated the trophic ecology of juveniles and adults of three species, Myleus setiger, Ossubtus xinguense, and Tometes kranponhah, common in rapids of the Xingu River during the low-water period. Diets, stable isotope ratios of muscle tissue, and functional traits were analyzed for 59 specimens of M. setiger, 175 of O. xinguense and 215 of T. kranponhah. The three species overlapped in dietary and isotopic space, with adult O. xinguense being most divergent. Juvenile and adult T. kranponhah and juvenile O. xinguense, two groups with broad diets, had lowest trophic positions estimated from isotopic data. Adult O. xinguense had the highest trophic position despite having large amounts of Podostemaceae in the diet. High trophic overlap during the low-water period suggests that either food resources are not limiting, or niches are partitioned by other means. Differences in functional traits of the three serrasalmids could be associated with differential efficiencies of swimming and feeding within microhabitats that vary according to water velocity and/or structural complexity.

Keywords

Dietary analysis Herbivory Niche overlap Niche partitioning Ontogenetic niche shift 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to Caroline C. Arantes, Friedrich W. Keppeler, Gustavo Hallwass, and Ralf Schwamborn for providing valuable suggestions to improve the manuscript. MCA and PSB were funded by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior. MCA received Doctoral Sandwich Program Abroad (PDSE CAPES # 6666/2015-9) and National Program for Post-Doctoral (PNPD CAPES # 2017-6). DBF and KOW acknowledge support from the US National Science Foundation (DEB 1257813 and IGERT 0654377), the Estate of George and Carolyn Kelso via the International Sportfish Fund (KOW), and Merit, Excellence, and Tom Slick fellowships from Texas A&M University (DBF). TG acknowledges grants from the Brazilian government (CNPq # 308278/2012-7), and (FAPESPA # 011/2015).

Compliance with ethical standards

The study complied with approved institutional protocol for animal use in research TAMU AUP IACUC 2014-0234.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia Aquática e Pesca, Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal do ParáBelémBrazil
  2. 2.Program in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, and Department of Wildlife and Fisheries SciencesTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.Laboratório de Biologia Pesqueira e Manejo dos Recursos Aquáticos, Grupo de Ecologia AquáticaUniversidade Federal do Pará, Cidade Universitária Prof. José Silveira NettoBelémBrazil

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