, Volume 829, Issue 1, pp 205–216 | Cite as

Biomanipulating streams: a supplementary tool in lake restoration

  • Christian SkovEmail author
  • Joan H. Hansen
  • Henrik Baktoft
  • Jakob Brodersen
  • Christer Brönmark
  • Lars-Anders Hansson
  • Kaj Hulthén
  • Ben B. Chapman
  • P. Anders Nilsson
Primary Research Paper


Removal of cyprinid fish is a widely used biomanipulation tool to transform turbid shallow eutrophic lakes in north temperate regions into a clear water state. We here evaluate the removal of cyprinids from streams as a supplement to lake fishing. Since cyprinids often aggregate in high densities in lake inlet/outlet streams during winter migration, removal of fish in this space-confined habitat may be cost-efficient as compared to fish removal in the lake habitat. In two consecutive years, we annually removed up to 35% of the dominant cyprinids from an inlet stream to a lake and argue that this could easily be increased with a more targeted fishing effort. Concurrently, we monitored species- and length-specific variation in migration propensity, to explore how this relates to efficient fish removal. Smaller planktivores generally had a much higher migratory propensity than larger benthivores. Hence, stream fishing specifically targets species and size groups that are less efficiently controlled with traditional lake fishing methods. As a rule of thumb, stream fishing is most efficient when water temperature is 2–6°C. Prior to implementing fish removals from streams, the potential evolutionary consequences of the targeted removal of migratory phenotypes should be considered.


Fish removal Cost-effective Cyprinid fishes Migration Evolutionary consequences 



This project was financially supported by Danish National Fishing License Funds. We thank the local landowners at Lake Søgård and technicians and students from DTU Aqua who helped to tag fish and remove cyprinid fish species from the inlet stream of Lake Søgård. We also thank two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments early in the review process.

Supplementary material

10750_2018_3832_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (60 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 60 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Skov
    • 1
    Email author return OK on get
  • Joan H. Hansen
    • 1
  • Henrik Baktoft
    • 1
  • Jakob Brodersen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Christer Brönmark
    • 4
  • Lars-Anders Hansson
    • 4
  • Kaj Hulthén
    • 4
  • Ben B. Chapman
    • 5
  • P. Anders Nilsson
    • 4
    • 6
  1. 1.National Institute of Aquatic ResourcesTechnical University of Denmark (DTU)SilkeborgDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Center for Ecology, Evolution and BiogeochemistryEAWAG Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and TechnologyKastanienbaumSwitzerland
  3. 3.Division of Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and EvolutionUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Biology - Aquatic EcologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  5. 5.Division of Evolution and Genomic SciencesUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  6. 6.Department of Environmental and Life Sciences - BiologyKarlstad UniversityKarlstadSweden

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