Advertisement

Fish assemblages in deep Italian subalpine lakes: history and present status with an emphasis on non-native species

  • Pietro Volta
  • Erik Jeppesen
  • Paolo Sala
  • Silvia Galafassi
  • Claudio Foglini
  • Cesare Puzzi
  • Ian J. Winfield
LARGE AND DEEP PERIALPINE LAKES

Abstract

We provide a comprehensive overview of the status of fish assemblages in eight Italian subalpine lakes using multiple data sources: historical records, standardised sampling and fishery catch statistics. Thirty-four fish species were recorded, twenty of which are native, seven introduced historically and another seven introduced recently. The number of fish species in individual lakes has increased by between 25 and 65% from 1855 to the present, with the increase being higher in the larger lakes. Non-native species contributed between 4.0 and 71.5% to standardised catches by numbers and between 4.8 and 65.1% by biomass. Roach Rutilus rutilus and pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus dominated electrofishing and benthic catches by number, while open-water catches were dominated by the coregonids European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus and gangfish Coregonus macrophthalmus. In terms of biomass, electrofishing catches were dominated by crucian carp Carassius carassius, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and wels catfish Silurus glanis, benthic catches were dominated by roach, European whitefish and crucian carp, and open-water catches by coregonids. Commercial fisheries are important ecosystem services provided by subalpine lakes, with their harvests now dominated by non-native species. To deliver effective biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision, the prioritisation of targets and interventions of management of non-native species is needed.

Keywords

Climate change CPUE Gillnet Electrofishing Fish biodiversity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Regione Piemonte, the Demanio Lacuale of Lake Orta, LIFE+ INHABIT, the International Commission for the Protection of Italian-Swiss Water (CIPAIS) and Regione Lombardia, for providing funds for the extensive fish sampling campaigns in the eight study lakes. Pietro Volta was funded by IttiOrta Project and LIFE15 NAT/IT/000823 IdroLIFE, Claudio Foglini and Paolo Sala were funded by LIFE15 NAT/IT/000823 IdroLIFE. Erik Jeppesen and Ian J. Winfield were supported by MARS (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) funded under the 7th EU Framework Programme, Theme 6 (Environment including Climate Change), Contract No.: 603378 (http://www.marsproject.eu). EJ was further supported by AU Centre for Water Technology (watec.au.dk). Finally, we would like to thank Dr. D.L.Yule and a second anonymous reviewer for their suggestions which greatly helped us to improve the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10750_2018_3621_MOESM1_ESM.docx (23 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 22 kb)
10750_2018_3621_MOESM2_ESM.doc (28 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 27 kb)
10750_2018_3621_MOESM3_ESM.docx (40 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 40 kb)

References

  1. Amarasinghe, U. S. & R. L. Welcomme, 2002. An analysis of fish species richness in natural lakes. Environmental biology of fishes 65: 327–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amori, G., F. M. Angelici, S. Frugis, G. Gandolfi, R. Groppali, B. Lanza, G. Relini & G. Vicini, 1993. Vertebrata. In Minelli, A., S. Ruffo & S. La Posta (eds), Checklist delle specie della fauna Italiana. Calderini, Bologna.Google Scholar
  3. Arranz, I., T. Mehner, L. Benejam, C. Argillier, K. Holmgren, E. Jeppesen, T. L. Lauridsen, P. Volta, I. J. Winfield & S. Brucet, 2016. Density-dependent effects as key drivers of intraspecific size structure of six abundant fish species in lakes across Europe. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 73: 519–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po, 2008. Monitoraggio dell’ittiofauna e redazione della Carta ittica del Fiume Po. Qualità dell’ittiofauna e del macrobenthos del fiume Po. Autorità di bacino del fiume Po, Parma: 52.Google Scholar
  5. Bettinetti, R., V. Croce, S. Galassi & P. Volta, 2006. pp′DDT and pp’DDE accumulation in a food chain of Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy): testing steady-state condition. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 13: 59–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bettinetti, R., S. Quadroni, S. Galassi, R. Bacchetta, L. Bonardi & G. Vailati, 2008. Is meltwater from Alpine glaciers a secondary DDT source for lakes? Chemosphere 73: 1027–1031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bianco, P. G., 2014. An update on the status of native and exotic freshwater fishes of Italy. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 30: 62–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianco, P. G. & G. B. Delmastro, 2011. Recenti novità tassonomiche riguardanti i pesci d’acqua dolce autoctoni in Italia e descrizione di una nuova specie di luccio. Researches on Wildlife Conservation 2: 1-13.Google Scholar
  9. Binelli, A. & A. Provini, 2003. The PCB pollution of Lake Iseo (N. Italy) and the role of biomagnification in the pelagic food web. Chemosphere 53: 143–151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bini, A., M. B. Cita & M. Gaetani, 1978. Southern Alpine Lakes – Hypothesis of an erosional origin related to the Messinian entrenchment. Marine Geology 27: 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonacina, C., 2001. The undermining of an ecosystem. Journal of Limnology 60: 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boon, P. J. & C. W. Bean, 2011. Freshwater non native species prevention, control or eradication? In Baxter, J. M. & C. A. Galbraith (eds), Species management: Challenges and Solutions for the 21st century. TSO Scotland, Edinbourgh.Google Scholar
  13. Brenmer, A. & K. Park, 2007. Public attitudes to the management of invasive non native species in Scotland. Biological Conservation 139: 306–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brucet, S., S. Pédron, T. Mehner, T. L. Lauridsen, C. Argillier, I. J. Winfield, P. Volta, M. Emmrich, T. Hesthagen, K. Holmgren, L. Benejam, F. Kelly, T. Krause, A. Palm, M. Rask & E. Jeppesen, 2013. Fish diversity in European lakes: geographical factors dominate over anthropogenic pressures. Freshwater Biology 58: 1779–1793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Byström, P., L. Persson & E. Walström, 1998. Competing predators and prey: juvenile bottlenecks in whole-lake experiments. Ecology 79: 2153–2167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calderoni A., R. Mosello & D. Ruggiu, 1992. Sixty years of limnology on Lago d’Orta: a case history of recovery from heavy pollution. In: P. Guilizzoni, G. Tartari, G. Giussani (eds), Limnology in Italy. Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia 50: 201–224.Google Scholar
  17. Callieri, C., R. Bertoni, M. Contesini & F. Bertoni, 2014. Lake Level Fluctuations Boost Toxic Cyanobacterial “Oligotrophic Blooms”. PLoS ONE 9: e109526.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109526.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Carol, J., L. Zamora & E. García-Berthou, 2007. Preliminary telemetry data on the movement patterns and habitat use of European catfish (Silurus glanis) in a reservoir of the River Ebro, Spain. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 16: 450–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carol, J., L. Benejam, J. Benito & E. Garcia-Berthou, 2009. Growth and diet of European catfish S. glanis in early and late invasion stages. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 174: 317–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Casselman, J. M., 2002. Effects of temperature, global extremes, and climate change on year-class production of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes in the Great Lakes basin. American Fisheries Society Symposium 32: 39–60.Google Scholar
  21. Castaldelli, G., A. Pluchinotta, M. Milardi, M. Lanzoni, L. Giari, R. Rossi & E. A. Fano, 2013. Introduction of exotic fish species and decline of native species in the lower Po basin, north-eastern Italy. Aquatic Conservation 23: 405–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cetti G., 1862. Il Pescatore del Lario. Ostinelli, Como 1862 (rist. Dominioni, Como 1999). 50 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Ciutti, F., M. E. Beltrami, I. Confortini, S. Cianfanelli & F. Cappelletti, 2011. Non-indigenous invertebrates, fish and macrophytes in Lake Garda (Italy). Journal of Limnology 70: 315–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Confortini, I., 2005. Storia del popolamento ittico del Lago di Garda. Biogeographia 27: 511–520.  https://doi.org/10.21426/B626110550.Google Scholar
  25. Copp, G. H. & P. Garner, 1995. Evaluating microhabitat use of fish larvae and juveniles with point abundance sampling. Folia Zoologica 44: 145–158.Google Scholar
  26. Copp, G., J. R. Britton, J. Cucherousset, E. Garcıa-Berthou, R. Kirk, E. Peeler & S. Stakenas, 2009. Voracious invader or benign feline? A review of the environmental biology of European catfish Silurus glanis in its native and introduced ranges. Fish & Fisheries 10: 252–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Delmastro, G. B. & G. A. C. Balma, 1991. Nota sulla comparsa del ciprinide transalpino Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758) nelle acque Piemontesi. Rivista di Idrobiologia 29: 163–167.Google Scholar
  28. EN 14011, 2003. Water quality – sampling of fish with electricity.Google Scholar
  29. EN 14757, 2005. Water quality – sampling of fish with multi-mesh gillnets.Google Scholar
  30. European Commission, 2016. Commission implementing regulation (EU) 1141, of 13 July 2016 adopting a list of invasive alien species of Union concern pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union L 189(4): 4–8.Google Scholar
  31. Galassi, S., P. Volta, L. Guzzella & A. Calderoni, 2006. Cycling DDT and homologues at basin scale: the case of Lake Maggiore. Journal of Limnology 65: 100–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gallina, N., N. Salmaso, G. Morabito & M. Beniston, 2013. Phytoplankton configuration in six deep lakes in the peri-Alpine region: are the key drivers related to eutrophication and climate? Aquatic Ecology 47: 177–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gandolfi, G., 2010. L’ittiofauna del Bacino Padano. Biologia Ambientale 24: 135–140.Google Scholar
  34. Gandolfi, A., C. Ferrari, B. Crestanello, M. Girardi, L. Lucentini & A. Meraner, 2017. Population genetics of pike, genus Esox (Actinopterygii, Esocidae), in Northern Italy: evidence for mosaic distribution of native, exotic and introgressed populations. Hydrobiologia 794: 73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gherardi, F., S. Bertolino, M. Bodon, S. Casellato, S. Cianfanelli, M. Ferraguti, E. Lori, G. Mura, A. Nocita, N. Riccardi, G. Rossetti, E. Rota, R. Scalera, S. Zerunian & E. Tricarico, 2008. Animal xenodiversity in Italian inland waters: distribution, modes of arrival, and pathways. Biological Invasions 10: 435–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gozlan, R. E., 2008. Introduction of non-native freshwater fish: is it all bad? Fish and Fisheries 9: 106–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gozlan, R. E., S. St-Hilaire, S. W. Feist, P. Martin & M. L. Kent, 2005. Disease threat to European fish. Nature (London) 435: 1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Grimaldi, E., 1972. Lago Maggiore: effects of exploitation and introductions on the salmonid community. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29: 777–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guilizzoni, P., G. Bonomi, G. Galanti & D. Ruggiu, 1982. Basic trophic status and recent development of some Italian lakes as revealed by plant pigments and other chemical components in sediment cores. Memorie dell’Istituto italiano di Idrobiologia 40: 79–98.Google Scholar
  40. ISPRA, 2014. Metodi biologici per le acque superficiali interne. Manuali e Linee Guida, ISPRA, Rome: 111.Google Scholar
  41. Jeppesen, E., T. Mehner, I. J. Winfield, K. Kangur, J. Sarvala, D. Gerdeaux, M. Rask, H. J. Malmquist, K. Holmgren, P. Volta, S. Romo, R. Eckmann, A. Sandström, S. Blanco, A. Kangur, H. Ragnarsson Stabo, M. Meerhoff, A. Ventelä, M. Søndergaard & T. L. Lauridsen, 2012. Impacts of climate warming on the long-term dynamics of key fish species in 24 European lakes. Hydrobiologia 694: 1–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jeppesen, E., M. Meerhoff, T. A. Davidson, D. Trolle, M. Søndergaard, T. L. Lauridsen, M. Beklioǧlu, S. Brucet, P. Volta, I. González-Bergonzoni & A. Nielsen, 2014. Climate change impacts on lakes: an integrated ecological perspective based on a multi-faceted approach, with special focus on shallow lakes. Journal of Limnology 73: 88–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Juncos, R., D. Milano, P. J. Macchi & P. H. Vigliano, 2015. Niche segregation facilitates coexistence between native and introduced fishes in a deep Patagonian lake. Hydrobiologia 747: 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kottelat, M. & J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes Kottelat. Cornol, Switzerland and Freyhof, Berlin.Google Scholar
  45. Libosvàrský, C., C. V. Barus & O. Sterba, 1990. Facultative parasitism of Pseudorasbora parva (Pisces). Folia Zoologica 39: 355–360.Google Scholar
  46. Marchetto, A., A. Lami, S. Musazzi, J. Massaferro, L. Langone & P. Guilizzoni, 2004. Lake Maggiore (N. Italy) trophic history: fossil diatom, plant pigments, and chironomids, and comparison with long-term limnological data. Quaternary International 113: 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mehner, T., M. Dieckman, U. Bramick & R. Lemcke, 2005. Composition of fish communties in German lakes as related to lake morphology, trophic state, shore structure and huma-use intensity. Freshwater Biology 50: 70–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meraner, A., P. Gratton, F. Baraldi & A. Gandolfi, 2013. Nothing but a trace left? Autochthony and conservation status of Northern Adriatic Salmo trutta inferred from PCR multiplexing, mtDNA control region sequencing and microsatellite analysis. Hydrobiologia 702: 201–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moran, R., I. Harvey, B. Moss & D. Atkinson, 2010. Influence of simulated climate change and eutrophication on three-spined stickleback populations: a large scale mesocosm experiment. Freshwater Biology 55: 315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mosello, R., W. Ambrosetti, S. Arisci, R. Bettinetti, F. Buzzi, A. Calderoni, E. Carrara, R. de Bernardi, S. Galassi, L. Garibaldi, B. Leoni, M. Manca, A. Marchetto, G. Morabito, A. Oggioni, R. Pagnotta, D. Ricci, M. Rogora, N. Salmaso, M. Simona, G. Tartari, M. Veronesi & P. Volta, 2010. Evoluzione recente della qualità delle acque dei grandi laghi profondi sudalpini (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo e Garda) in risposta alle pressioni antropiche e alle variazioni climatiche. Biologia ambientale 24: 167–177.Google Scholar
  51. Nõges, T., O. Anneville, J. Guillard, J. Haberman, A. Järvalt, M. Manca, G. Morabito, M. Rogora, S. J. Thackeray, P. Volta, I. J. Winfield & P. Nõges, 2018. Fisheries impacts on lake ecosystem structure in the context of a changing climate and trophic state. Journal of Limnology 77: 46–61.Google Scholar
  52. Olin, M., M. Rask, J. Ruhujärvi, M. Kurkilahti, P. Ala-Opas & O. Ylönen, 2002. Fish community structure in mesotrophic and eutrophic lakes of southern Finland: the relative abundances of percids and cyprinids along atrophic gradient. Journal of Fish Biology 60: 593–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pavesi, P., 1871. I pesci e la pesca nel Canton Ticino. Agricoltore ticinese, Lugano.Google Scholar
  54. Persson, L., S. Diehl, L. Johansson, G. Andersson & S. F. Hamrin, 1991. Shifts in fish communities along the productivity gradient of temperate lakes—patterns and the importance of size-structured interactions. Journal of Fish Biology 38: 281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Poma, G., A. Binelli, P. Volta, C. Roscioli & L. Guzzella, 2014. Evaluation of spatial distribution and accumulation of novel brominated flame retardants, HBCD and PBDEs in an Italian subalpine lake using zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21: 9655–9664.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Premazzi, G., A. Dalmiglio, A. C. Cardoso & C. Chiaudani, 2003. Lake management in Italy: the implications of the Water Framework Directive. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management 8: 41–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Regione Lombardia, 2017. Programma triennale per la Pesca e Acquacoltura. Bollettino Ufficiale Regione Lombardia, Serie ordinaria n.6.Google Scholar
  58. Rogora, M., L. Kamburska, R. Mosello & G. A. Tartari, 2016. Lake Orta chemical status 25 years after liming: problems solved and emerging critical issues. Journal of Limnology 75: 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Saidi, H., M. Ciampittiello, C. Dresti & G. Ghiglieri, 2013. The climatic characteristic of extreme precipitations for short-term intervals in the watershed of Lake Maggiore. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 113: 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Saidi, H., M. Ciampittiello, C. Dresti & G. Ghiglieri, 2015. Assessment of trends in extreme precipitation events: a case study in Piedmont (North-West Italy). Water Resources Management 29: 63–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Salmaso, N. & R. Mosello, 2010. Limnological research in the deep southern subalpine lakes: synthesis, directions and perspectives. Advances in Oceanography and Limnology 1: 29–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Salmaso, N., G. Morabito, L. Garibaldi & R. Mosello, 2007. Trophic development of the deep lakes south of the Alps: a comparative analysis. Fundamental and Applied Limnology/Archiv für Hydrobiologie 170: 177–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Steedman, R. J., T. H. Whillans, A. P. Behnm, K. E. Bray, K. I. Cullis, M. M. Holland, S. J. Stoddart & R. J. White, 1996. Use of historical information for conservation and restoration of Great Lakes aquatic habitat. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 415–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tricarico, E., 2012. A review on pathways and drivers of use regarding non-native freshwater fish introductions in the Mediterranean region. Fisheries Management and Ecology 19: 133–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Trochine, C., S. Brucet, C. Argillier, I. Arranz, M. Beklioglu, L. Benejam, T. Ferreira, T. Hesthagen, K. Holmgren, E. Jeppesen, F. Kelly, T. Krause, M. Rask, P. Volta, I. J. Winfield & T. Mehner, 2017. Non-native fish occurrence and biomass in 1943 Western Palearctic lakes and reservoirs and their abiotic and biotic correlates. Ecosystems.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0156-6.Google Scholar
  66. Trombitskiy, I. D. & A. E. Kakhovskiy, 1987. On the facultative parasitism of the chebachok, Pseudorasbora parva, in fish ponds. Journal of Ichthyology 27: 180–182.Google Scholar
  67. Vagliano, G. G., 1710. Delle spezie dei Pesci prodotti dalle Acque Verbane. Le Rive del Verbano, Milano.Google Scholar
  68. Van de Woolfshaar, K. E., A. M. De Roos & L. Person, 2006. Size-dependent interactions inhibit coexistence in intraguild predation systems with life-history omnivory. The American Naturalist 168: 62–75.Google Scholar
  69. Visconti, A., P. Volta, A. Fadda & M. Manca, 2013. Roach in Lake Maggiore: a peaceful invasion detected with C, N stable isotope analysis. The Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Agriculture and Veterinary 13: 1–7.Google Scholar
  70. Visconti, A., P. Volta, A. Fadda, A. Di Guardo & M. Manca, 2014. Seasonality, littoral versus pelagic carbon sources, and stepwise 15 N-enrichment of pelagic food web in a deep subalpine lake: the role of planktivorous fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 71: 436–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Volta, P. & N. Jepsen, 2008. The recent invasion of roach (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in a large South-Alpine Lake. Journal of Limnology 67: 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Volta, P., P. Tremolada, M. C. Neri, G. Giussani & S. Galassi, 2009. Age-dependent bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in fish and their selective biotransformation in top predators from Lake Maggiore (Italy). Water Air & Soil Pollution 197: 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Volta, P., A. Oggioni, R. Bettinetti & E. Jeppesen, 2011. Assessing lake typologies and indicator fish species for Italian natural lakes using past fish richness and assemblages. Hydrobiologia 671: 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Volta, P., E. Grimaldi, A. Calderoni & B. Polli, 2013a. Andamento della pesca professionale sul Lago Maggiore nel periodo 1979-2011. Commissione Italo Svizzera per la Pesca. http://www.cispp.org/pdf/Volume-1.pdf.
  75. Volta, P., E. Jeppesen, B. Campi, P. Sala, M. Emmrich & I. J. Winfield, 2013b. The population biology and life history traits of Eurasian ruffe [Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.), Pisces: Percidae] introduced into eutrophic and oligotrophic lakes in Northern Italy. Journal of Limnology 72: 280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Volta, P., E. Jeppesen, B. Leoni, B. Campi, P. Sala, L. Garibaldi, T. L. Lauridsen & I. J. Winfield, 2013c. Recent invasion by a non-native cyprinid (common bream Abramis brama) is followed by major changes in the ecological quality of a shallow lake in southern Europe. Biological Invasions 15: 2065–2079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Volta, P., N. Yan & J. Gunn, 2016. Past, present and future of the fish community of Lake Orta (Italy), one of the world’s largest acidified lakes. Journal of Limnology 75: 131–141.Google Scholar
  78. Winfield, I. J., 2016. Two hearts are better than one. Encouraging collaboration between freshwater fish conservation and freshwater fisheries management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine & Freshwater Ecosystems 26: 1007–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Winfield, I. J., J. M. Fletcher & J. B. James, 2010. An overview of fish species introductions to the English Lake District, UK, an area of outstanding conservation and fisheries importance. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 26(Supplement 2): 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Winfield, I. J., J. M. Fletcher & J. B. James, 2011. Invasive fish species in the largest lakes of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England: the collective U.K. experience. Hydrobiologia 660: 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zacchera, L., 1948. Principali laghi d’Italia, loro pescosità e contributo all’economia nazionale. Tesi di Laurea, Università Commerciale Luigi Bocconi, Milano: 350.Google Scholar
  82. Zerunian S., 2004. I pesci delle acque interne d'Italia. Quaderni della Conservazione della Natura, 20. 265 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNR-Institute of Ecosystem StudyVerbania PallanzaItaly
  2. 2.Department of BioscienceAarhus UniversitySilkeborgDenmark
  3. 3.Sino Danish Centre for Education and ResearchBeijingChina
  4. 4.GRAIA srl – Gestione e Ricerca Ambientale Ittica AcqueVarano BorghiItaly
  5. 5.Lake Ecosystems Group, Centre for Ecology & HydrologyLancaster Environment CentreLancasterUK

Personalised recommendations