, Volume 805, Issue 1, pp 231–243 | Cite as

Effects of water velocity and substrate composition on foraging efficiency of an endangered benthic cyprinid, Nooksack dace (Rhinichthys cataractae subsp. cataractae)

  • J. Michael Champion
  • Jordan S. Rosenfeld
  • Robert Shadwick
Primary Research Paper


To identify the mechanisms whereby substrate embeddedness and water velocity influence Nooksack dace (Rhinichthys cataractae subsp. cataractae) prey capture efficiency, we stocked dace in foraging arenas with varying substrate types over a range of velocities (0, 25, 35 cm s−1) and measured their efficiency of prey capture. We stocked a known number of mayfly (Ephemeroptera), black fly (Simuliidae), and chironomid (Chironomidae) larvae in each foraging arena and measured the number of invertebrates remaining after 12 h. Foraging efficiency for mayflies was significantly reduced over unembedded substrate, and capture efficiency for all taxa decreased at higher velocities in all substrate treatments. Decreased foraging efficiency indicates that higher velocities may degrade the accuracy of prey strikes, that dace may alter their foraging behavior to reduce energy expenditures at higher velocities, that there is less available foraging habitat within their velocity tolerances, or that invertebrates become more interstitial at higher velocities. Although it is difficult to unambiguously discriminate among these mechanisms with our experimental design, our results suggest that dace are adapted to foraging in low-velocity micro-habitats within the boundary layer, and that their foraging efficiency may be sensitive to both the refuging ability of their prey and velocity and turbulence at their focal point.


Benthic fish Embeddedness Boundary layer Capture success Foraging habitat 



This work was funded by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada discovery grant. We would also like to thank the reviewers for their careful review and comments on this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Michael Champion
    • 1
  • Jordan S. Rosenfeld
    • 2
  • Robert Shadwick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyThe University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Conservation Sciences SectionUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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