Impacts of mangrove encroachment and mosquito impoundment management on coastal protection services
- 394 Downloads
The ecosystem services afforded by coastal wetlands are threatened by climate change and other anthropogenic stressors. The Kennedy Space Center and Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge in east central Florida offer a representative site for investigating how changes to vegetation distribution interact with management to impact coastal protection. Here, salt marshes are converting to mangroves, and mosquito impoundment structures are being modified. The resulting changes to vegetation composition and topography influence coastal protection services in wetlands. We used a model-based assessment of wave attenuation and erosion to compare vegetation (mangrove, salt marsh) and impoundment state (intact, graded). Our findings suggest that the habitat needed to attenuate 90% of wave height is significantly larger for salt marshes than mangroves. Erosion prevention was significantly higher (470%) in scenarios with mangroves than in salt marshes. Intact berms attenuated waves over shorter distances, but did not significantly reduce erosion. Differences in coastal protection were driven more by vegetation than by impoundment state. Overall, our findings reveal that mangroves provide more coastal protection services, and therefore more coastal protection value, than salt marshes in east central Florida. Other coastal regions undergoing similar habitat conversion may also benefit from increased coastal protection in the future.
KeywordsMangrove Salt marsh Coastal management Wave attenuation Erosion prevention Ecosystem service value
Funding for this work was provided by Grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Climate and Biological Response Program (NNX11AO94G, NNX12AF55G) and New Investigator Program (NNX16AN04G) and the National Science Foundation Macrosystems Biology Program (EF 1065821). This work was conducted as part of NASA’s Climate Adaptation Science Investigators (CASI) Workgroup. Cheryl Doughty was supported by the University of California, Los Angeles Graduate Summer Research Mentorship Program. We would like to thank Glenn Coldren, Loraé Simpson, Joseph Funk, and Regina Kukola for support in field collections. We also acknowledge Jim Lyon from the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and Lynne Phillips for continued support from the NASA Kennedy Space Center Environmental Planning Branch, Ecological Program.
- Barbier, E. B., 2016. The protective service of mangrove ecosystems: a review of valuation methods: Marine Pollution Bulletin special issue: “Turning the tide on mangrove loss”. Marine Pollution Bulletin [available on internet at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X16300224].
- Barbier, E. B. & G. M. Heal, 2006. Valuing ecosystem services. The Economists’ Voice 3: 1–6.Google Scholar
- Bender, M. A., T. R. Knutson, R. E. Tuleya, J. J. Sirutis, G. A. Vecchi, S. T. Garner & I. M. Held, 2010. Modeled impact of anthropogenic warming on the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes. Science 327: 454–458 [available on internet at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/327/5964/454.abstract].
- Breininger, D., M. Barkaszi, R. Smith & D. Oddy, 1994. Endangered and Potentially Endangered Wildlife on John F. Kennedy Space Center and Faunal Integrity as a Goal for Maintaining Biological Diversity. NASA Report TM-109204 [available on internet at http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940031915].
- Cavanaugh, K. C., J. R. Kellner, A. J. Forde, D. S. Gruner, J. D. Parker, W. Rodriguez & I. C. Feller, 2014. Poleward expansion of mangroves is a threshold response to decreased frequency of extreme cold events. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111: 723–727 [available on internet at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3896164&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract].
- Das, S. & J. Vincent, 2009. Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 106: 7357–7360 [available on internet at https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=das+and+vincent+2009+mangroves&btnG=&as_sdt=1%252C5&as_sdtp=#0].
- de Groot, R., L. Brander, S. van der Ploeg, R. Costanza, F. Bernard, L. Braat, M. Christie, N. Crossman, A. Ghermandi, L. Hein, S. Hussain, P. Kumar, A. McVittie, R. Portela, L. C. Rodriguez, P. ten Brink & P. van Beukering, 2012. Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units. Ecosystem Services 1: 50–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Doughty, C. L., J. A. Langley, W. S. Walker, I. C. Feller, R. Schaub & S. K. Chapman, 2016. Mangrove range expansion rapidly increases coastal wetland carbon storage. Estuaries and Coasts 39: 385–396 [available on internet at http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12237-015-9993-8].
- Guannel, G., P. Ruggiero, J. Faries, K. Arkema, M. Pinsky, G. Gelfenbaum, A. Guerry & C.-K. Kim, 2015. Integrated modeling framework to quantify the coastal protection services supplied by vegetation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120: 324–345.Google Scholar
- Hall, C., J. Provancha, D. Oddy, R. Lowers & J. Drese, 2001. Canaveral National Seashore Water Quality and Aquatic Resource Inventory. NASA Technical Memorandum 2001-210261 [available on internet at http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010073452].
- Hall, C. R. C., P. A. Schmalzer, D. D. R. Breininger, B. W. B. Duncan, J. H. Drese, D. A. Scheidt, E. A. Reyier, K. G. Holloway-Adkins, D. M. Oddy, J. A. Provancha, T. E. Foster & E. D. Stolen, 2014. Ecological Impacts of the Space Shuttle Program at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida [available on internet at http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140012489].
- Halpern, B. S., S. Walbridge, K. A. Selkoe, C. V. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D’Agrosa, J. F. Bruno, K. S. Casey, C. Ebert, H. E. Fox, R. Fujita, D. Heinemann, H. S. Lenihan, E. M. P. Madin, M. T. Perry, E. R. Selig, M. Spalding, R. Steneck & R. Watson, 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319: 948–952.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hazen and Sawyer, P.C. (2008). Indian River Lagoon Economic Assessment and Analysis Update. Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program. Final Report. Contract No. 24706. http://www.sjrwmd.com/indianriverlagoon/pdfs/IRL_Economic_Assessment_2007.pdf
- Huckle, H. F., H. D. Dollar & R. F. Pendleton, 1974. Soil Survey of Brevard County, Florida. USDA, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Koch, E. W., E. B. Barbier, B. R. Silliman, D. J. Reed, G. M. E. Perillo, S. D. Hacker, E. F. Granek, J. H. Primavera, N. Muthiga, S. Polasky, B. S. Halpern, C. J. Kennedy, C. V. Kappel & E. Wolanski, 2009. Non-linearity in ecosystem services: temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leonardi, N., N. K. Ganju & S. Fagherazzi, 2015. A linear relationship between wave power and erosion determines salt-marsh resilience to violent storms and hurricanes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 113: 201510095.Google Scholar
- Mikkelsen, P. M. & J. Cracraft, 2001. Marine biodiversity and the need for systematic inventories. Bulletin of Marine Science 69(2): 525–534.Google Scholar
- Möller, I. & T. Spencer, 2002. Wave dissipation over macro-tidal saltmarshes: effects of marsh edge typology and vegetation change. Journal of Coastal Research 36: 506–521.Google Scholar
- Morrisey, D. J., A. Swales, S. Dittmann, M. A. Morrison, C. E. Lovelock & C. M. Beard, 2010. The ecology and management of temperate mangroves. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 48: 43–160.Google Scholar
- NASA, 2010. John F. Kennedy Space Center. Environmental Resources Document. KSC-PLN-1911 Revised Edition.Google Scholar
- Osland, M. J., L. C. Feher, K. T. Griffith, K. C. Cavanaugh, N. M. Enwright, R. H. Day, C. L. Stagg, K. W. Krauss, R. J. Howard, J. B. Grace & K. Rogers, 2016b. Climatic controls on the global distribution, abundance, and species richness of mangrove forests. Ecological Monographs. doi: 10.1002/ecm.1248.Google Scholar
- Poppleton, J., A. Shuey & H. Sweet, 1977. Vegetation of central Florida’s east coast; a checklist of the vascular plants. Florida Science 40: 362–389.Google Scholar
- Resio, D. T. & J. J. Westerink, 2008. Modeling the physics of storm surges. Physics Today 7: 3–9.Google Scholar
- Rey, J. R. & T. Kain, 1989. A Guide to the Salt Marsh Impoundments of Florida. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero Beach.Google Scholar
- Rosenzweig, C., R. M. Horton, D. A. Bader, M. E. Brown, R. DeYoung, O. Dominguez, M. Fellows, L. Friedl, W. Graham, C. Hall, S. Higuchi, L. Iraci, G. Jedlovec, J. Kaye, M. Loewenstein, T. Mace, C. Milesi, W. Patzert, P. W. Stackhouse & K. Toufectis, 2014. Enhancing climate resilience at NASA centers: a collaboration between science and stewardship. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 95: 1351–1363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saleh, F. & M. P. Weinstein, 2016. The role of nature-based infrastructure (NBI) in coastal resiliency planning: a literature review. Journal of Environmental Management 1–11 [available on internet at http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0301479716307484].
- Scavia, D., J. C. Field, D. F. Boesch, R. W. Buddemeier, D. R. Cayan, M. Fogarty, M. A. Harwell, R. W. Howarth, D. J. Reed, T. C. Royer, A. H. Sallenger, J. G. Titus, C. Town & W. Virginia, 2002. Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems. Estuaries 25: 149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schmalzer, P. A., 1995. Biodiversity of saline and brackish marshes of the Indian River Lagoon: historic and current patterns. Bulletin of Marine Science 57(1): 37–48.Google Scholar
- Schmalzer, P. A., M. A. Hensley & C. A. Dunlevy, 2001. Background characteristics of soils of Kennedy Space Center, Merritt Island, Florida: selected elements and physical properties. Florida Scientist 64: 161–190.Google Scholar
- Sharp, R., H. T. Tallis, T. Ricketts, A. D. Guerry, S. A. Wood, R. Chaplin-Kramer, E. Nelson, D. Ennaanay, S. Wolny, N. Olwero, K. Vigerstol, D. Pennington, G. Mendoza, J. Aukema, J. Foster, J. Forrest, D. Cameron, K. Arkema, E. Lonsdorf & C. Kennedy, 2016. InVEST 3.3.2 User’s Guide. The Natural Capital Project, Stanford University, University of Minnesota, The Nature Conservancy, and World Wildlife Fund.Google Scholar
- Shepard, C. C., C. M. Crain & M. W. Beck, 2011. The protective role of coastal marshes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 6: 272–283.Google Scholar
- Smith, N. P. N., 1983. Tidal and low-frequency net displacement in a coastal lagoon. Estuaries 6: 180–189 [available on internet at http://link.springer.com/article/10.2307/1351510].
- Spalding, M., A. McIvor, F. H. Tonneijck, S. Tol & P. van Eijk, 2014a. Mangroves for Coastal Defence: Guidelines for Coastal Managers and Policy Makers. Wetlands International and the Nature Conservancy.Google Scholar
- Tempest, J. A., I. Möller & T. Spencer, 2015. A review of plant-flow interactions on salt marshes: the importance of vegetation structure and plant mechanical characteristics. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 2: 669–681 [available on internet at http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=WOS&search_mode=CitingArticles&qid=1&SID=X2XaHQz772lIDnruRuT&page=1&doc=2].
- Whitehouse, R., S. Richard, W. Roberts & H. Mitchener, 2000. Dynamics of estuarine muds [available on internet at http://eprints.hrwallingford.co.uk/830/].
- Wong, P. P., I. J. Losada, J. P. Gattuso, J. Hinkel, A. Khattabi, K. L. McInnes, Y. Saito & A. Sallenger, 2014. Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In Field, C. B., V. R. Barros, D. J. Dokken, K. J. Mach, M. D. Mastrandrea, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea & L. L. White (eds), Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 361–409.Google Scholar
- United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. Coastal Salt Marsh. South Florida Multi-species Recovery Plan. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta.Google Scholar