Temperature effects on periphyton, epiphyton and epipelon under a nitrogen pulse in low-nutrient experimental freshwater lakes
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The ongoing global climate change involves not only increased temperatures but may also produce more frequent extreme events, such as severe rainfall that could trigger a pulse of nutrients to lakes. In shallow lakes, this may affect primary producers through a number of direct and indirect mechanisms. We conducted a six-month mesocosm experiment to elucidate how periphyton (on inert substrata), epiphyton and epipelon biomass responded to a nitrogen (N) pulse, an approximately tenfold enrichment of the NO3-pool, under three contrasting warming scenarios: ambient temperature and ca. +3°C and ca. +4.5°C elevated temperatures (hereafter T1, T2 and T3). After the N pulse, we found a higher periphyton biomass at elevated than at ambient temperatures but no change in epiphyton biomass. Epipelon biomass was lower in T3 than in T1. Both periphyton and epiphyton biomasses correlated negatively with snail biomass, while epiphyton biomass correlated positively with light. Different responses to higher temperatures under short-term extreme nutrient loading conditions may be attributed to differences in the access to nutrient sources and light. Our data suggest that the biomass of periphyton in oligotrophic clear-water lakes will increase significantly under conditions exhibiting short-term extreme nutrient loading in a warmer climate.
KeywordsHeated Climate Extreme event Nutrient pulse Loading
This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (31170340, 31500296), CSC (The China Scholarship Council), CLEAR (a Villum Kann Rasmussen Centre of Excellence project) and the MARS project (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) funded under the 7th EU Framework Programme, Theme 6 (Environment including Climate Change), Contract No.: 603378 (http://www.mars-project.eu), PROGNOS (Predicting in-lake RespOnses to chanGe using Near real time mOdelS - Water Joint Programme Initiative) and AQUACOSM (Network of Leading European AQUAtic MesoCOSM Facilities Connecting Mountains to Oceans from the Arctic to the Mediterranean). M.F.G.’s contribution was supported by the Argentinean Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET). S.B.’s contribution was supported by the Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship No. 330249 (CLIMBING). We thank Anne Mette Poulsen for valuable editorial comments.
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