, Volume 810, Issue 1, pp 29–44 | Cite as

Diversity, biogeography and conservation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida) in East and Southeast Asia

  • Alexandra ZieritzEmail author
  • Arthur E. Bogan
  • Elsa Froufe
  • Olga Klishko
  • Takaki Kondo
  • Uthaiwan Kovitvadhi
  • Satit Kovitvadhi
  • Jin Hee Lee
  • Manuel Lopes-Lima
  • John M. Pfeiffer
  • Ronaldo Sousa
  • Tu Van Do
  • Ilya Vikhrev
  • David T. Zanatta


Recent research efforts have significantly advanced our knowledge on Asian freshwater mussel (Bivalvia: Unionida) diversity and distribution. Here we provide a modern consensus of the diversity, biogeography and conservation of Unionida in the region comprising East and Southeast Asia (excluding Wallacea) and Asian Russia. A data review confirmed the presence of 228 native and 3 non-native Unionida (98% Unionidae, 2% Margaritiferidae), rendering the region a global hotspot of freshwater mussel diversity. Species richness was highest in China (particularly Yangtze basin) in absolute numbers and Cambodia when correcting for country area, and decreased gradually towards the south and steeply towards the north and east. Six of the seven unionid subfamilies are native to the region, with species richness peaking in Southeast Asia for Rectidentinae, Gonideinae, Parreysiinae and Modellnaiinae, China for Anodontinae and Unioninae, and Asian Russia for Margaritiferidae. Conservation status and data collected after 1980 were not available for 61 and 24% of species, respectively. Dams, deforestation and pollution are likely the major threats to mussels in the region, though data in this respect are scarce. The Philippines, Laos, Indonesia, Myanmar and Malaysia are among the countries with the poorest data availability and urgently require research.


Distribution Margaritiferidae Mollusca Russia Unionoida Unionidae 



AZ was supported by a Postdoctoral Research Fellowship by the School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus. EF was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under grant SFRH/BPD/108445/2015.

Supplementary material

10750_2017_3104_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (540 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 539 kb)
10750_2017_3104_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (623 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 623 kb)


  1. Ali, S. H. & L. E. Cartier, 2013. China’s Pearl Industry: an Indicator of Ecological Stress. Development & Society: Asia, Climate Change, Ecosystems.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, D. J., K. G. Smith & W. R. T. Darwall, 2012. The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Indo-Burma. IUCN, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  3. Awakura, T., 1968. The ecology of parasitic glochidia of the fresh-water pearl mussel, Margaritifera laevis (Haas) (in Japanese with English summary). Scientific Report of the Hokkaido Salmon Hatchery 23: 1–21.Google Scholar
  4. Bauer, G. & K. Wächtler, 2001. Ecology and Evolution of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoida. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bogan, A. E., 1993. Freshwater bivalve extinctions (Mollusca: Unionoida): a search for causes. American Zoologist 33: 599–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bogan, A. E. & V. T. Do, 2013. Conservation assessment of freshwater bivalves in northern Vietnam. Tentacle 21: 19–20.Google Scholar
  7. Bolotov, I., I. Vikhrev, Y. Bespalaya, V. Artamonova, M. Gofarov, Y. S. Kolosova, A. V. Kondakov, A. Makhrov, A. A. Frolov, S. Tumpeesuwan, A. Lyubas, T. Romanis & K. Titova, 2014. Ecology and conservation of the endangered Indochinese freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera laosensis (Lea, 1863) in the Nam Pe and Nam Long rivers, Northern Laos. Tropical Conservation Science 7: 706–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brandt, R. A. M., 1974. The non-marine aquatic Mollusca of Thailand. Archiv fuer Molluskenkunde 105: 1–423.Google Scholar
  9. Chan, S. Y., 2008. A record of a freshwater clam in Singapore (Unionidae-Ensidens ingallsianus ingallsianus (Lea, 1852). Ellipsaria 10: 9–10.Google Scholar
  10. Chaopaknam, B., K. Toopbucha & A. Nagachinta, 1994. Study on some biological and ecological aspects of freshwater pearl mussel in Kwae Noi River, Kanchanaburi, Thailand (in Thai). Technical paper No 5/1994 Inland Fisheries Division, Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Bangkok. 24.Google Scholar
  11. Choi, K. C. & S. S. Choi, 1965. Ecological studies on the Lamprotula coreana (1) -on the breeding season and the larvae, glochidia (in Korean). The Korean Journal of Zoology 8: 67–72.Google Scholar
  12. Clements, R., L. P. Koh, T. M. Lee, R. Meier & D. Li, 2006. Importance of reservoirs for the conservation of freshwater molluscs in a tropical urban landscape. Biological Conservation 128: 136–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Đặng, N. T., T. B. Thái & V. M. Phạm, 1980. Định loại động vật không xương sống nước ngọt Bắc Việt Nam. Nhà Xuất bản Khoa học và Kỹ thuật, Ha Noi.Google Scholar
  14. Dautzenberg, P. & B. L. d’Hamonville, 1887. Description d’Espècies nouvelle du Tonkin et observations sur quelques autres Mollusques de la même région. Journal de Conchyliologie 35: 213–225.Google Scholar
  15. Dautzenberg, P. & H. Fischer, 1906a. Contribution a la fauna malacologique de l’Indo-Chine. Journal de Conchyliologie 54: 145–226.Google Scholar
  16. Dautzenberg, P. & H. Fischer, 1906b. Liste des Molluques récoltés par M.H. Mansuy en Indo-Chine et au Yunnan et description d’especies nouvelles. Journal de Conchyliologie 53: 343–474.Google Scholar
  17. Dautzenberg, P. & H. Fischer, 1907. Contribution â la faune malcologique de l’Indo-Chine. Journal de Conchyliologie 54: 145–226.Google Scholar
  18. Deein, G., Y. Unakornsawat, P. Rattanadaeng, C. Sutcharit, B.-O. Kong-Im & S. Panha, 2003. A new species of Solenaia from Thailand (Bivalvia: Unionidae: Ambleminae). The Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3: 53–58.Google Scholar
  19. Dolgin, V. N., 2009. Freshwater mussels of Siberia [Kizucheniu presnovodnyh molluskov Sibiri]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta 11: 174–180.Google Scholar
  20. Drouet, H. & M. Chaper, 1892. Voyage de M. Chaper a Bornéo. Unionidae. Mémoires de la Société zoologique de France 5: 145–154.Google Scholar
  21. Dudgeon, D., 2000. The ecology of tropical Asian rivers and streams in relation to biodiversity conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 239–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dudgeon, D., A. H. Arthington, M. O. Gessner, Z. Kawabata, D. Knowler, C. Lévêque, R. J. Naiman, A. H. Prieur-Richard, D. Soto, M. L. J. Stiassny & C. A. Sullivan, 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, status, and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81: 163–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fiske, D. & J. Shepherd, 2007. Continuity and change in Chinese freshwater pearl culture. Gems & Gemology 43: 138–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Froufe, E., D. V. Gonçalves, A. Teixeira, R. Sousa, S. Varandas, M. Ghamizi, A. Zieritz & M. Lopes-Lima, 2016. Who lives where? Molecular and morphometric analyses clarify which Unio species (Unionida, Mollusca) inhabit the southwestern Palearctic region. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 16: 597–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Graf, D. L. & K. S. Cummings, 2006. Palaeoheterodont diversity (Mollusca: Trigonioida + Unionoida): what we know and what we wish we knew about freshwater mussel evolution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 148: 343–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Graf, D. L. & K. S. Cummings, 2007. Review of the systematics and global diversity of freshwater mussel species (Bivalvia: Unionoida). Journal of Molluscan Studies 73: 291–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graf, D. L. & K. S. Cummings, 2015. The Freshwater Mussels (Unionoida) of the World (and other less consequential bivalves), updated 5 August 2015. MUSSEL Project Web Site. Available at Accessed 2016.
  28. Haag, W. R., 2012. North American Freshwater Mussels: Natural History, Ecology, and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Haas, F., 1910–1920. Die Unioniden. In Küster, H. C. (ed) Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz. vol 9. Bauer und Raspe, Nürnberg, 1–344.Google Scholar
  30. Haas, F., 1923. Beiträge zu einer Monographie der asiatischen Unioniden. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 38: 129–203.Google Scholar
  31. Haas, F., 1969. Superfamilia Unionacea. In Mertens, R. & W. Henning (eds), Das Tierreich (Berlin). de Gruyter & Co., Berlin: 1–663.Google Scholar
  32. He, J. & Z. Zhuang, 2013. The Freshwater Bivalves of China. ConchBooks, Harxheim.Google Scholar
  33. Heude, R. P., 1875–1885. Conchyliologie fluviatile de la province de Nanking et de la Chine centrale (10 volumes).Google Scholar
  34. Hornbach, D. J., V. J. Kurth & M. C. Hove, 2010. Variation in freshwater mussel shell sculpture and shape along a river gradient. American Midland Naturalist 164: 22–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ishida, S., S. Kimura, T. Karasawa, K. Okazaki, T. Hishino & N. Nagayasu, 2015. Predation on unionid bivalves by the nutria Myocastor coypus in the Yodogawa River and its characteristics inferred from dead shell samples. Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History 69: 29–40.Google Scholar
  36. Itoh, T., W. Kakino & Y. Yoshida, 2010. Host species for glochidia of the freshwater unionid mussel Inversiunio jokohamensis. Venus: The Japanese Journal of Malacology 69: 41–48.Google Scholar
  37. Itoh, T., W. Kakino, M. Toma, H. Fujimoto, K. Sakihara & H. Kohno, 2014. Host species for glochidia of the freshwater unionid mussel Cristaria tenuis in Ishigakijima Island, Japan. Venus: The Japanese Journal of Malacology 72: 77–87.Google Scholar
  38. IUCN, 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Accessed 2016.
  39. Kantor, Y. I. & A. V. Sysoev, 2005. Catalogue of Molluscs of Russia and Adjacent Countries. KMK Science Press, Moskow.Google Scholar
  40. Klishko, O., 2012a. Mollusca. Part 6 Red Book of the Zabaikalsky Territory, Animals. Novosibirsky Publishing House, Novosibirsk: 207–238.Google Scholar
  41. Klishko, O. K., 2012b. Some data on reproductive biology of the freshwater mussels (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae) and their relationships with bitterlings (Cyprinidae) in Transbaikalye. Byulleten’ Dal’nevostochnogo Malakologicheskogo Obshchestva [Bulletin of the Russian Far East Malacological Society] 15(16): 31–55.Google Scholar
  42. Klishko, O. K. & Y. Bespalaya, Conservation status and threats of existence for species Unio (Bivalvia Unionidae) in the refuge of the Transbaikalia, Russia. In: 2nd International Meeting on Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Bivalves, Buffalo, 2015. p 90.Google Scholar
  43. Kondo, T., 2008. Monograph of Unionoida in Japan (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Special Publication of the Malacological Society of Japan 3: 1–69.Google Scholar
  44. Kondo, T. & O. Kobayashi, 2005. Revision of the genus Margaritifera (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae) of Japan, with description of a new species. Venus: The Japanese Journal of Malacology 64: 135–140.Google Scholar
  45. Kondo, T. & J. Yamashita, 1980. Morphology of the glochidium of Pseudodon omiensis Heimburg. Venus: The Japanese Journal of Malacology 39: 187–189.Google Scholar
  46. Kongim, B., C. Sutcharit & S. Panha, 2015. Cytotaxonomy of unionid freshwater mussels (Unionoida, Unionidae) from northeastern Thailand with description of a new species. ZooKeys 514: 93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Konopleva, E., A. Kondakov, I. Vikhrev, Y. Bespalaya, T. S. & I. Bolotov, 2015. Biogeography of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) across the largest Southeast Asian riverbasins: Endemism and biodiversity assessment. In: Mehler, K., L. E. Burlakova, A. Y. Karatayev & S. Dickinson (eds) 2nd International Meeting on Biology and Conservation of Freshwater Bivalves. Great Lakes Center, Buffalo: 32.Google Scholar
  48. Kwon, O. K., 1981. The ecological studies on the molluscs in the lake Uiam (1) - on the attachment of the glochidia of A. fukudai to the fish (in Korean). Korean Journal of Limnology 14: 21–25.Google Scholar
  49. Lopes-Lima, M., R. Sousa, J. Geist, D. C. Aldridge, R. Araujo, J. Bergengren, Y. Bespalaya, E. Bódis, L. Burlakova, D. Van Damme, K. Douda, E. Froufe, D. Georgiev, C. Gumpinger, A. Karatayev, Ü. Kebapçi, I. Killeen, J. Lajtner, B. M. Larsen, R. Lauceri, A. Legakis, S. Lois, S. Lundberg, E. Moorkens, G. Motte, K.-O. Nagel, P. Ondina, A. Outeiro, M. Paunovic, V. Prié, T. von Proschwitz, N. Riccardi, M. Rudzīte, M. Rudzītis, C. Scheder, M. Seddon, H. Şereflişan, V. Simić, S. Sokolova, K. Stoeckl, J. Taskinen, A. Teixeira, F. Thielen, T. Trichkova, S. Varandas, H. Vicentini, K. Zajac, T. Zajac & S. Zogaris, 2017a. Conservation status of freshwater mussels in Europe: state of the art and future challenges. Biological Reviews 92: 572–607. doi: 10.1111/brv.12244.
  50. Lopes-Lima, M., E. Froufe, M. Ghamizi, K. Mock, Ü. Kebapçi, O. Klishko, S. Kovitvadhi, U. Kovitvadhi, O. S. Paulo, J. M. Pfeiffer, M. Raley, N. Riccardi, H. Şereflişan, R. Sousa, A. Teixeira, V. T. Do, S. Varandas, X. Wu, D. T. Zanatta, A. Zieritz & A. Bogan, 2017b. Phylogeny of most species rich freshwater bivalve family (Bivalvia: Unionida: Unionidae): Defining modern subfamilies and tribes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 106: 174–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Lydeard, C., R. H. Cowie, W. F. Ponder, A. E. Bogan, P. Bouchet, S. A. Clark, K. S. Cummings, T. J. Frest, O. Gargominy, D. G. Herbert, R. Hershler, K. E. Perez, B. Roth, M. Seddon, E. E. Strong & F. G. Thompson, 2004. The global decline of nonmarine mollusks. Bioscience 54: 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martens, E. V., 1861. Die Japanischen Binnenschnecken im Leidner Museum. Malakozoologische Blätter 7: 32–61.Google Scholar
  53. Martens, E. V., 1867. Ueberblick der Najadeen des indischen Archipels. Malakozoologische Blätter 14: 10–17.Google Scholar
  54. Martens, E. V., 1902. Neue Unioniden aus Tonkin und Anam. Nachrichtsblatt der Deutschen Malakozoologischen Gesellschaft 34: 130–135.Google Scholar
  55. Min, D.-K., J.-S. Lee, D.-B. Koh & J.-K. Je, 2004. Mollusks in Korea. Min molluscan research institute, Seoul: 410–415.Google Scholar
  56. Ng, T. H., S. K. Tan, W. H. Wong, R. Meier, S. Y. Chan, H. H. Tan & D. C. Yeo, 2016. Molluscs for sale: assessment of freshwater gastropods and bivalves in the ornamental pet Trade. PLoS ONE 11: e0161130. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161130.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Panha, S., 1990. The site survey and the study on reproductive cycles of freshwater pearl mussels in the central part of Thailand. Venus: The Japanese Journal of Malacology 49: 240–257.Google Scholar
  58. Panha, S., 1992. Infection experiment of the glochidium of a freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis (Limnoscapha) myersiana (Lea 1856). Venus: The Japanese Journal of Malacology 51: 303–314.Google Scholar
  59. Park, G. M. & O. K. Kwon, 1995. Seasonal gonadal cycle of the seven species of freshwater Unionidae (Pelecypoda: Unionoida) (in Korean). Korean Journal of Malacology 11: 147–163.Google Scholar
  60. Pereira, D., M. C. D. Mansur, L. D. S. Duarte, A. S. de Oliveira, D. M. Pimpão, C. Callil, C. Ituarte, E. Parada, S. Peredo, G. Darrigran, F. Scarabino, C. Clavijo, G. Lara, I. C. Miyahira, M. T. R. Rodriguez & C. Lasso, 2014. Bivalve distribution in hydrographic regions in South America: historical overview and conservation. Hydrobiologia 735: 15–44.Google Scholar
  61. Pfeiffer, J. M. & D. L. Graf, 2013. Re-analysis confirms the polyphyly of Lamprotula Simpson, 1900 (Bivalvia: Unionidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies 79: 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pfeiffer, J. M. & D. L. Graf, 2015. Evolution of bilaterally asymmetrical larvae in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Prashad, B., 1922. A revision of the Burmese Unionidae. Records of The Indian Museum 24: 91–111.Google Scholar
  64. Preston, H. B., 1912. A catalogue of the Asiatic naiades in the collection of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, with descriptions of new species. Records of The Indian Museum 7: 279–308.Google Scholar
  65. Preston, H. B., 1915. Mollusca (Freshwater Gastropoda & Pelecypoda). Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  66. Qian, Z., Y. Fang & J. He, 2015. Description of two new freshwater mussels from China. Shell Discoveries 1: 32–33.Google Scholar
  67. Schepman, M. M., 1896. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific expedition to Central Borneo. The Mollusca of the Dutch Scientific Borneo-expedition. Notes from the Leyden Museum 17: 145–162.Google Scholar
  68. Shirai, A., T. Kondo & T. Kajita, 2010. Molecular markers reveal genetic contamination of endangered freshwater pearl mussels in pearl culture farms in Japan. Venus: The Japanese Journal of Malacology 68: 151–163.Google Scholar
  69. Shu, F.-Y., H.-J. Wang, B.-Z. Pan, X.-Q. Liu & H.-Z. Wang, 2009. Assessment of species status of mollusca in the mid-lower Yangtze lakes. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica 33: 1051–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Simpson, C. T., 1900. Synopsis of the naiades, or pearly fresh-water mussels. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 22: 501–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Simpson, C. T., 1914. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naiads, or Pearly Fresh-water Mussels. Part I-III. Bryant Walker, Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
  72. Starobogatov, Y. I., L. A. Prozorova, V. V. Bogatov & E. M. Sayenko, 2004. Bivalvia. Key to Freshwater Invertebrates of Russia and Adjacent Lands), vol. 6: Mollusks, Polychaetes, Nemerteans. Nauka, St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
  73. Tan, S. K., S. Y. Chan & G. R. Clements, 2012. A Guide to Snails and other Non-marine Molluscs of Singapore. Science Centre, Singapore.Google Scholar
  74. Thach, N. N., 2005. Shells of Vietnam. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.Google Scholar
  75. Thach, N. N., 2007. Recently collected shells of Vietnam. L’Informatore Piceno, Ancona.Google Scholar
  76. Thach, N. N., 2012. New Records of Molluscs from Vietnam. 48HrBooks Company, Akron, OH.Google Scholar
  77. Thach, N. N., 2016a. Lanceolaria bogani (Bivalvia: Unionidae), a new species from Vietnam. Novapex 17: 9–11.Google Scholar
  78. Thach, N. N., 2016b. Vietnamese New Mollusks: Seashell-Landsnails-Cephalopods, with 59 New Species. 48HrBooks Company, Akron, OH.Google Scholar
  79. Vaughn, C. C. & C. C. Hakenkamp, 2001. The functional role of burrowing bivalves in freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 46: 1431–1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Walker, K. F., H. A. Jones & M. W. Klunzinger, 2014. Bivalves in a bottleneck: taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) in Australasia. Hydrobiologia 735: 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Whelan, N. V., A. J. Geneva & D. L. Graf, 2011. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of tropical freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida) resolves the position of Coelatura and supports a monophyletic Unionidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 504–514.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Williams, J. D., M. L. Warren Jr., K. S. Cummings, J. L. Harris & R. J. Neves, 1993. Conservation status of freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada. Fisheries 18: 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Winemiller, K. O., P. B. McIntyre, L. Castello, E. Fluet-Chouinard, T. Giarrizzo, S. Nam, I. G. Baird, W. Darwall, N. K. Lujan, I. Harrison, M. L. J. Stiassny, R. A. M. Silvano, D. B. Fitzgerald, F. M. Pelicice, A. A. Agostinho, L. C. Gomes, J. S. Albert, E. Baran, M. Petrere, C. Zarfl, M. Mulligan, J. P. Sullivan, C. C. Arantes, L. M. Sousa, A. A. Koning, D. J. Hoeinghaus, M. Sabaj, J. G. Lundberg, J. Armbruster, M. L. Thieme, P. Petry, J. Zuanon, G. T. Vilara, J. Snoeks, C. Ou, W. Rainboth, C. S. Pavanelli, A. Akama, A. V. Soesbergen & L. Sáenz, 2016. Balancing hydropower and biodiversity in the Amazon, Congo, and Mekong. Science 351: 128–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Xiong, L., S. Ouyang & X. Wu, 2012. Fauna and standing crop of freshwater mussels in Poyang Lake, China. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 30: 124–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Yang, S. L., 1990. Record of a freshwater bivalve, Pseudodon vondembuschianus (Mollusca: Unionidae), in Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 38: 83–84.Google Scholar
  86. Zatravkin, M. N. & V. V. Bogatov, 1987. Large Bivalve Molluscs of Fresh and Brackish Waters of the Far East USSR. Far East Branch. Academy of Science USSR, Vladivostok.Google Scholar
  87. Zhadin, V. I., 1965. Mollusks of fresh and brackish waters of the USSR. Academy of Sciences of the USSR Press, Moscow.Google Scholar
  88. Zhang, Q., L. Li, Y. G. Wang, A. D. Werner, P. Xin, T. Jiang & D. A. Barry, 2012. Has the Three-Gorges Dam made the Poyang Lake wetlands wetter and drier? Geophysical Research Letters 39: L20402. doi: 10.1029/2012GL053431.Google Scholar
  89. Zhou, C.-H., S. Ouyang, X.-P. Wu & M. Li, 2007. Phylogeny of the genus Lamprotula (Unionidae) in China based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of 16S rRNA and ND1 genes. Acta Zoologica Sinica 53: 1024–1030.Google Scholar
  90. Zieritz, A., J. I. Hoffman, W. Amos & D. C. Aldridge, 2010. Phenotypic plasticity and genetic isolation-by-distance in the freshwater mussel Unio pictorum (Mollusca: Unionoida). Evolutionary Ecology 24: 923–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zieritz, A., M. Lopes-Lima, A. E. Bogan, R. Sousa, S. Walton, K. A. Rahim, J.-J. Wilson, P.-Y. Ng, E. Froufe & S. McGowan, 2016. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia. Science of the Total Environment 571: 1069–1078.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Zi-Qiang, H., 2005. Geographical distribution of endemic species of Chinese freshwater bivalves. Chinese Journal of Zoology 40: 80–83.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexandra Zieritz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arthur E. Bogan
    • 2
  • Elsa Froufe
    • 3
  • Olga Klishko
    • 4
  • Takaki Kondo
    • 5
  • Uthaiwan Kovitvadhi
    • 6
  • Satit Kovitvadhi
    • 7
  • Jin Hee Lee
    • 8
  • Manuel Lopes-Lima
    • 3
    • 9
  • John M. Pfeiffer
    • 10
  • Ronaldo Sousa
    • 11
  • Tu Van Do
    • 12
  • Ilya Vikhrev
    • 13
  • David T. Zanatta
    • 14
  1. 1.School of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  2. 2.Research LaboratoryNorth Carolina State Museum of Natural SciencesRaleighUSA
  3. 3.CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental ResearchUniversity of PortoMatosinhosPortugal
  4. 4.Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and CryologySiberian Branch of Russian Academy of SciencesChitaRussia
  5. 5.Division of Natural SciencesOsaka Kyoiku UniversityKashiwaraJapan
  6. 6.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  7. 7.Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Science and TechnologyBansomdejchaopraya Rajabhat UniversityBangkokThailand
  8. 8.Department of Life ScienceKyungpook National UniversityDaeguKorea
  9. 9.CIBIO/InBIO - Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic ResourcesUniversidade do PortoVairãoPortugal
  10. 10.Florida Museum of Natural HistoryUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA
  11. 11.CBMA - Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology, Department of BiologyUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  12. 12.Institute of Ecology and Biological ResourcesVietnam Academy of Science and TechnologyHa NoiVietnam
  13. 13.IBIGER – Institute of Biogeography and Genetic Resources, Federal Centre for Integrated Arctic ResearchRussian Academy of SciencesArkhangelskRussia
  14. 14.Biology Department, Institute of Great Lakes ResearchCentral Michigan UniversityMount PleasantUSA

Personalised recommendations