Chironomidae of the Holarctic region: a comparison of ecological and functional traits between North America and Europe
- 284 Downloads
Chironomidae (Diptera) are widespread, abundant, diverse and ubiquitous, and include genera and species that are distributed across the Holarctic region. However, the geographical barriers between continents should have resulted in intraspecific population differentiation with reflection on individual biological and ecological traits. Our aim was to test for potential differences in Chironomidae species/genus and traits between the Nearctic and Palearctic regions. We compared the Chironomidae trait information gathered in two databases; one database was developed in Europe and the other in North America. Common genera and species of both databases were selected, and the common traits were adjusted into the same trait categories. Data were transformed into presence/absence and divided into Eltonian (biological/functional) and Grinnellian (ecological) traits. Common genera and common species were analyzed using Fuzzy correspondence analysis (FCA). Differences between databases occur for all trait domains. Yet, Eltonian traits showed lower level of concordance than Grinnellian traits at the species level. Different biological characteristics in the Nearctic and Palearctic regions may indicate that Chironomidae have different adaptions to similar ecological environments due to intraspecific variability or even trait plasticity.
KeywordsDiptera Eltonian traits Grinnellian traits Palearctic Nearctic Regional traits
This study was possible through the strategic project UID/MAR/04292/2013 granted to MARE, also through a PhD scholarship (SFRH/BD/80188/2011); both funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). The research benefited from the cotutelage between the University of Coimbra and the University of Lyon 1, and the cooperation between the MARE, University of Coimbra, Portugal, and the LEHNA – Laboratoire d’Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés, University of Lyon, France.
- Andersen, T., P. S. Cranston & J. H. Epler (eds), 2013. Chironomidae of the Holartic Region. Keys and diagnoses, Larvae. Insect Systematics and Evolution Supplement 66. Lund, Sweden.Google Scholar
- Armitage, P., P. S. Cranston & L. C. V. Pinder (eds), 1995. The Chironomidae. The Biology and Ecology of Non-biting Midges. Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
- Beck Jr., W. M., 1977. Environmental Requirements and Pollution Tolerance of Common Freshwater Chironomidae, Report EPA-600/4-77-024. USEPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Bertrand, J. A. M., B. Delahaie, Y. X. C. Bourgeois, T. Duval, R. García-Jiménez, J. Cornuault, B. Pujol, C. Thébaud & B. Milá, 2016. The role of selection and historical factors in driving population differentiation along an elevational gradient in an island bird. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 29: 824–836.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chessel, D., A. B. Dufour & J. Thioulouse, 2004. The ade4 package – I: One-table methods. R News 4: 5–10.Google Scholar
- Cranston, P. S., 1995. Introduction. In Armitage, P., P. S. Cranston & L. C. V. Pinder (eds), The Chironomidae. The Biology and Ecology of Non-biting Midges. Chapman & Hall, London: 1–7.Google Scholar
- Cranston, P. S. & D. R. Oliver, 1987. Problems in Holarctic chironomid biogeography. Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 29: 51–56.Google Scholar
- Dolédec, S. & D. Chessel, 1987. Rythmes saisonniers et composantes stationnelles en milieu aquatique. I. – Description d’un plan d’observation complet par projection de variables. Acta Oecologica Oecologia Generalis 8: 403–426.Google Scholar
- Dray, S., A. B. Dufour & D. Chessel, 2007. The ade4 package – II: two-table and K-table methods. R News 7: 47–52.Google Scholar
- Lecocq, T., S. Dellicour, D. Michez, P. Lhomme, M. Vanderplanck, I. Valterová, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Rasmont, 2013. Scent of a break-up: Phylogeography and reproductive trait divergences in the red-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lapidarius). BMC Evolutionary Biology 13: 263.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lindeberg, B., 1980. Taxonomic problems in Holarctic Chironomidae (Diptera). In Murray, D. A. (ed.), Chironomidae. Ecology, Systematics, Cytology and Physiology, 1st ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford: 93–96.Google Scholar
- Marziali, L., D. G. Armanini, M. Cazzola, S. Erba, E. Toppi, A. Buffagni & B. Rossaro, 2010. Responses of chironomid larvae (Insecta Diptera) to ecological quality in mediterranean river mesohabitats (South Italy). River Research and Applications 26: 1036–1105.Google Scholar
- Moller Pillot, H. K. M., 2009. Chironomidae Larvae. Biology and Ecology of the Chironomini. KNNV Publishing, Zeist.Google Scholar
- Oliver, D. R. & M. E. Roussel, 1983. The Genera of Larval Midges of Canada: Diptera, Chironomidae, Insects and Arachnids of Canada Handbook Series, Part 11. Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Ottawa.Google Scholar
- Pinder, L. C. V., 1983. The larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera) of the Holarctic region. Introduction. In Wiederholm, T. (ed), Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region. Keys and Diagnoses, Part I, Larvae, Supplement 19. Entomologica Scandinavica, Östergötland, Motala: 7–10.Google Scholar
- R Core Team, 2015. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria [available on internet at https://www.R-project.org].
- Resh, V. H., A. G. Hildrew, B. Statzner & C. R. Townsend, 1994. Theoretical habitat templets, species traits, and species richness: A synthesis of long-term ecological research on the Upper Rhône River in the context of concurrently developed ecological theory. Freshwater Biology 31: 539–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saether, O. A. & M. Spies, 2013. Fauna Europaea: Chironomidae. In: Beuk, P. & T. Pape (eds), Fauna Europaea: Diptera. Fauna Europaea Version 2.6.2 [available on internet at http://www.faunaeur.org/]. Accessed 1 August of 2016.
- Ter Braak, C. F. J., 1988. Partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis. In Bock, H. H. (ed.), Classification and Related Methods of Data Analysis. North-Holland, Amsterdam: 551–558.Google Scholar
- Tokeshi, M., 1995. Species Interactions and Community Structure. In Armitage, P., P. S. Cranston & L. C. V. Pinder (eds), The Chironomidae. The biology and ecology of non-biting midges. Chapman & Hall, London: 297–335.Google Scholar
- USEPA, 2012. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (EPA/600/R-11/038F). Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Vallenduuk, H. J. & H. K. M. Moller Pillot, 2007. Chironomidae larvae – general ecology and Tanipodinae. KNNV Publishing, Zeist.Google Scholar
- Van Kleef, H., W. C. E. P. Verberk, F. F. P. Kimenai, G. Van der Velde & R. S. E. W. Leuven, 2015. Natural recovery and restoration of acidified shallow soft-water lakes: Successes and bottlenecks revealed by assessing life-history strategies of chironomid larvae. Basic and Applied Ecology 16: 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vieira, N. K. M., N. L. Poff, D. M. Carlisle, S. R. Moulton II, M. L. Koski & B. C. Kondratieff, 2006. A Database of Lotic Invertebrate Traits for North America. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 187: 1–19 [available on internet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/ds187/]. Accessed at 1 August 2016.
- Wiederholm, T. (ed.), 1983. Chironomidae of the Holarctic Region. Keys and Diagnoses, Part I, Larvae. Entomologica Scandinavica Supplement 19. Östergötland, Motala, Sweden.Google Scholar
- Yuan, L. L., 2006. Estimation and Application of Macroinvertebrate Tolerance Values, Report EPA/600/P-04/116F. USEPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Zhou, Y.-B., C. Newman, W.-T. Xu, C. D. Buesching, A. Zalewski, Y. Kaneko, D. W. Macdonald & Z.-Q. Xie, 2011. Biogeographical variation in the diet of Holarctic martens (genus Martes, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae): Adaptive foraging in generalists. Journal of Biogeography 38: 137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar