Hydrobiologia

, Volume 761, Issue 1, pp 97–119 | Cite as

A first overview of open access digital data for the Ross Sea: complexities, ethics, and management opportunities

  • Falk Huettmann
  • Moritz Sebastian Schmid
  • Grant Richard Woodrow Humphries
BIOLOGY OF THE ROSS SEA Review Paper

Abstract

It is now understood that the Ross Sea stands as one of the last relatively pristine (ocean) areas. Many decades of international research have been carried out under the Antarctic Treaty System stipulating that data acquired under this scheme must be shared with the global community. In line with Carlson (Nature 469:293, 2011, Polar Research  10.3402/polar.v32i0.20789, 2013), we find little evidence of enforcement towards making digital geographic information systems (GIS) project data available online for the wider Ross Sea ecosystem. While it is possible to find easily >40 digital datasets for most areas and pixels worldwide, despite many decades of research in the Ross Sea, only app. 100 digital datasets can be found for the study area. It simply shows that data from many studies in the region are not available. High-quality population and trend data explicit in space and time are mostly missing in the public realm, e.g., from the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR.org). This presents an ethical dilemma because it still appears that sufficient data exist for a pro-active and pre-cautionary management of this region. No coherent and efficient management scheme truly exists and is applied for this precious part of the world now heavily affected by global stressors and mismanagement of data and resources.

Keywords

Ross Sea Open access data Geographic information system (GIS) Digitalization Globalization Wilderness 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is based on the concept put forth by the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), International Polar Year (IPY), and its visionaries. We owe much of this work to people and agencies who pushed for sharing data and frameworks like freedom of information such as Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (GMBA), Arctic Ocean Diversity (ArcOD), and the Global Primate Network (GPN). Specifically, L. Spears, B. Raymond, B. Danis, D. Carson, B. Bluhm, A.W. Diamond, J. Evans, H. Beier, L. Koever, J. Athayde, and the QGIS community should be acknowledged for their efforts, courage, and kind communications in helping and developing this project. This is EWHALE lab publication # 122.

References

  1. Ainley, D. G., 1985. The biomass of birds and mammals in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. In Siegfried, W. R., et al. (eds), Antarctic Nutrient Cycles and Food Webs. Springer, Hamburg: 498–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainley, D., 2002. Ross Sea, Antarctica, where all ecosystem processes still remain for study, but maybe not for long. Marine Ornithology 30: 55–62.Google Scholar
  3. Ainley, D. G., 2010. A history of the exploitation of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Polar Record 46: 233–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ainley, D. G. & D. Pauly, 2013. Fishing down the food web of the Antarctic continental shelf and slope. Polar Record. doi: 10.1017/S0032247412000757.Google Scholar
  5. Ainley, D. G. & D. B. Siniff, 2009. The importance of Antarctic toothfish as prey of Weddell Seals in the Ross Sea: a review. Antarctic Science 21: 317–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ainley, D. G., E. F. O’Connor & R. J. Boekelheide, 1984. The marine ecology of birds in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. AOU Ornitholological Monographs 32: 1–97.Google Scholar
  7. Ainley, D. G., G. Ballard & K. M. Dugger, 2006. Competition among penguins and cetaceans reveals trophic cascades in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica. Ecology 87: 2080–2093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ainley, D. G., G. Ballard & S. Olmastroni, 2009a. An apparent decrease in the prevalence of “Ross Sea Killer Whales” in the Southern Ross Sea. Aquatic Mammals 35: 335–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ainley, D. G., G. Ballard, L. K. Blight, S. Ackley, S. D. Emslie, A. Lescroël, S. Olmastroni, S. E. Townsend, C. T. Tynan, P. Wilson & E. Woehler, 2009b. Impacts of cetaceans on the structure of southern ocean food webs. Marine Mammal Science 26: 482–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ainley, D. G., G. Ballard & J. Weller, 2010. Ross Sea biodiversity part I: validation of the 2007 CCAMLR bioregionalization workshop result towards including the Ross Sea in a representative network of marine protected areas in the Southern Ocean. CCAMLR Report, WG-EMM-10/11. Hobart, Tasmania.Google Scholar
  11. Ainley, D., C. M. Brooks, J. T. Eastman & M. Massaro, 2012. Unnatural selection of antarctic toothfish in the Ross Sea Antarctica, Chapter 3. In Huettmann, F. (ed.), Protection of the Three Poles. Springer, Tokyo: 53–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Anderson, J. B., 1999. Antarctic marine geology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  13. Arndt, J. E., H. W. Schenke, M. Jakobsson, F. O. Nitsche, G. Buys, B. Goleby, M. Rebesco, F. Bohoyo, J. Hong, J. Black, R. Greku, G. Udintsev, F. Barrios, W. Reynoso-Peralta, M. Taisei & R. Wigley, 2013. The International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO) Version 1.0—a new bathymetric compilation covering circum-Antarctic waters. Geophysical Research Letters 40: 311–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arrigo, K. R., G. L. van Dijken, D. G. Ainley, M. A. Fahnestock & T. Markus, 2002. Ecological impact of a large Antarctic iceberg. Geophysical Research Letters 29: 8-1–8-4.Google Scholar
  15. Ballard, G., D. Jongsomjit, S. D. Veloz & D. G. Ainley, 2012. Coexistence of mesopredators in an intact polar ocean ecosystem: the basis for defining a Ross Sea marine protected area. Biological Conservation 156: 72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ballard, G., V. Toniolo, D. G. Ainley, C. L. Parkinson, K. R. Arrigo & P. N. Trathan, 2010. Responding to climate change: Adélie Penguins confront astronomical and ocean boundaries. Ecology 91: 2056–2069. doi: 10.1890/09-0688.1.
  17. Bandura, A., 2007. Impeding ecological sustainability through selective moral disengagement. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development 2: 8–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baum, J. & B. Worm, 2009. Cascading top-down effects of changing oceanic predator abundances. Journal of Anima Ecology 78: 699–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Belgrano, A. & C. W. Fowler, 2011. Ecosystem-Based Management for Marine Fisheries: An Evolving Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Berkman, P. A., 2002. Science into policy: Global Lessons from Antarctica. Academic Press, San Diego.Google Scholar
  21. Berkman, P. A., M.A.Lang, D. W. H. Walton & O. R. Young (eds), 2011. Science Diplomacy: Antarctica, Science, and the Governance of International Spaces. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  22. Biber-Klemm, S., S. I. Martinez, A. Jacob & A. Jevtic, 2010. Agreement on Access and Benefit Sharing for Non-commercial Research. Swiss Academy of Sciences, Bern.Google Scholar
  23. Blight, L. B., D. G. Ainley, S. F. Ackley, G. Ballard, T. Ballerini, R. L. Brownell Jr, C.-H. Cheng, M. Chiantore, D. Costa, M. C. Coulter, P. Dayton, A. L. Devries, R. Dunbar, S. Earle, J. Eastman, S. D. Emslie, C. W. Evans, R. A. Garrott, S. Kim, G. Kooyman, A. Lescroël, M. Lizotte, M. Massaro, S. Olmastroni, P. J. Ponganis, J. Russell, D. B. Siniff, W. O. Smith Jr, B. S. Stewart, I. Stirling, J. Willis, P. Wilson & E. J. Woehler, 2010. Fishing for data in the Ross Sea. Science 330: 1316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bluhm, B., D. Watts & F. Huettmann, 2010. Free database availability, metadata and the internet: an example of two high latitude components of the census of marine life, Chapter 13. In Cushman, S. & F. Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics and Wildlife Conservation. Springer, Tokyo: 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brandt, A., C. De Broyer, I. G. De Mesel, K. E. Ellingsen, A. J. Gooday, B. Hilbig, K. Linse, M. R. A. Thomson & P. A. Tyler, 2006. The biodiversity of the deep Southern Ocean benthos. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (B Biological Science) 362(1477): 39–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Breiman, L., 2001. Statistical modeling: the two cultures. Statistical Science 16: 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carlson, D., 2011. A lesson on sharing. Nature 469: 293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carlson, D., 2012. IPY 2007–2008: where threads of the double helix and sputnik intertwine. In Huettmann, F. (ed.), Protection of the Three Poles. Springer, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  29. Carlson, D., 2013. Reading and thinking about International Polar Years: five recent books. Polar Research. doi: 10.3402/polar.v32i0.20789.Google Scholar
  30. Ceballos, G., P. R. Ehrlich, A. D. Barnosky, A. Garcia, R. M. Pringle & T. M. Palmer, 2015. Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400253.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Chapin, F. S., G. P. Kofinas & C. Folke (eds), 2009. Principles of Ecosystem Stewardship: Resilience-based Natural Resource Management in a Changing World. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Chapman, A. D., & J. Wieczorek, (eds) 2006. Guide to Best Practices for Georeferencing. Copenhagen: Global Biodiversity Information Facility [available online at http://www.gbif.org/orc/?doc_id=1288].
  33. Choudhury, M. & A. Brandt, 2009. Benthic isopods (Crustacea, Malacostraca) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica: species checklist and their zoogeography in the Southern Ocean. Polar Biology 32: 599–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Christian, C., D. Ainley, M. Bailey, P. Dayton, J. Hocevar, M. LeVine, J. Nikoloyuk, C. Nouvian, E. Velarde, R. Werner & J. Jacque, 2013. A review of formal objections to Marine Stewardship Council fisheries certifications. Biological Conservation 13: 10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clarke, A., H. J. Griffiths, K. Linse, D. K. A. Barnes & J. A. Crame, 2007. How well do we know The Antarctic marine fauna? A preliminary study of macroecological and biogeographical patterns in Southern Ocean gastropod and bivalve molluscs. Diversity and Distributions 13: 620–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coleman, G., 2014. Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous. Verso, London.Google Scholar
  37. Collier, P., 2008. The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are failing and What Can be Done About it. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  38. Constable, A. J., W. K. de la Mare, D. J. Agnew, I. Everson & D. Miller, 2000. Managing fisheries to conserve the Antarctic marine ecosystem: practical implementation of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). ICES Journal of Marine Science 57: 778–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Convey, P., 2001. Antarctic Ecosystems. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol. 1. Academic Press, Waltham: 171–184.Google Scholar
  40. Corti, L., V. Van den Eynden, L. Bishop & M. Woollard, 2014. Managing and Sharing Research Data. SAGE, Thousand Oaks.Google Scholar
  41. Costello, M. J., W. Appeltans, N. Bailly, W. G. Berendsohn, M. Yde de Yong, R. Edwards, F. Froese, W. Huettmann, J. Los, H. Segers Mees & F. A. Bisby, 2014. Strategies for the sustainability of online open-access biodiversity databases. Biological Conservation 173: 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cushman, S. & F. Huettmann, 2010. Spatial Complexity, Informatics and Wildlife Conservation. Springer, Tokyo.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Czech, B., 2006. Steady state economy. In Tietenberg, T., et al. (eds), Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  44. Daly, H. & J. Farley, 2003. Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Island Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  45. Davey, F. J. 2004. Ross Sea bathymetry, 1:2000000, version 1.0. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences geophysical map 16, Institute of Geological & Nuclear Science Ltd., Lower Hutt, NZ.Google Scholar
  46. De Broyer C., P. Koubbi (eds), with H. Griffiths, B. Danis, B. David, S. Grant, J. Gutt, C. Held, G. Hosie, F. Huettmann, A. Post, Y Ropert-Coudert & A. van den Putte 2014. The CAML/SCAR-MarBIN Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), Cambridge (see also online atlas.biodiversity.aq)Google Scholar
  47. Donnelly, J., J. J. Torres, T. T. Sutton & C. Simoniello, 2004. Fishes of the eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biology 27: 637–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Drew, C. A., Y. Wiersma & F. Huettmann (eds), 2011. Predictive Species and Habitat Modeling in Landscape Ecology. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  49. Emslie, S. D., L. Coats & K. Licht, 2007. A 45,000 year record of Adélie penguins and climate change in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Geology 35: 61–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Friedman, G., 2010. The next 100 years: A Forecast for the 21st Century. Anchor Books, New York.Google Scholar
  51. Glasberg, E., 1998. The last place on Earth: antarctica and virtual capitalism. PoLAR Political and Legal Anthropological Review 21: 65–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Graham, C. H., S. Ferrier, F. Huettmann, C. Moritz & A. T. Peterson, 2004. New developments in museum-based informatics and applications in biodiversity analysis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19: 497–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grant S., A. Constable, B. Raymond, & S Doust, 2006. Bioregionalisation of the Southern Ocean: Report of Experts Workshop (Hobart, September 2006). ACE-CRC and WWF Australia.Google Scholar
  54. George, J. L. & D. G. H. Frear, 1966. Pesticides in the Antarctic. Journal of Appllied Ecology 3(Suppl): 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Halpern, B. S., S. Walbridge, K. A. Selkoe, C. B. Kappel, F. Micheli, C. D’Agrosa, J. F. Bruno, K. S. Casey, C. Ebert, H. E. Fox, R. Fujita, D. Heinemann, H. S. Lenihan, E. M. P. Madin, M. T. Perry, E. R. Selig, M. Spalding, R. Steneck & R. Watson, 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319: 948–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Halpern, B. S., M. Frazier, J. Potapenko, K. S. Casey, K. Koenig, C. Longo, J. S. Lowndes, R. C. Rockwood, E. R. Selig, K. A. Selkoe & S. Walbridge, 2015. Spatial and temporal changes in cumulative human impacts on the world’s ocean. Nature Communications 6: 7615. doi: 10.1038/ncomms8615. www.nature.com/naturecommunications.
  57. Hardy, S. M., M. Lindgren, H. Konakanchi & F. Huettmann, 2011. Predicting the distribution and ecological niche of unexploited Snow Crab (Chionoecetes opilio) populations in Alaskan Waters: a first open-access ensemble model. Integrative and Comparative Biology 51(4): 608–622. doi: 10.1093/icb/icr102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heidbrink, I., 2014. Ross Sea Party: In: A. Hund (ed.) Antarctica and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth’s Polar Regions. Vol 2, pp. 620–622. http://www.abc-clio.com/.
  59. Hey, T., S. Tansley & K. Tolle, 2009. The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Microsoft Corporation, Redmond.Google Scholar
  60. Hilty, J. A., C. C. Chester & M. S. Cross, 2007. Climate and Conservation: Landscape and Seascape Science, Planning, and Action. Island Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  61. Huettmann, F., 2005. Databases and science-based management in the context of wildlife and habitat: towards a certified ISO standard for objective decision- making for the global community by using the internet. Journal of Wildlife Management 69: 466–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huettmann, F. 2007a. Constraints, suggested solutions and an outlook towards a new digital culture for the oceans and beyond: experiences from five predictive GIS models that contribute to global management, conservation and study of marine wildlife and habitat. In Vanden Berghe, E. et al. (ed.) Proceedings of ‘Ocean Biodiversity Informatics’: An International Conference on Marine Biodiversity Data Management Hamburg, 29 November–1 December, 2004. IOC Workshop Report, 202, VLIZ Special Publication 37: 49–61. http://www.vliz.be/vmdcdata/imis2/imis.php?module=ref&refid=107201.
  63. Huettmann, F. 2007b. The digital teaching legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY): Details of a present to the global village for achieving sustainability. In Tjoa, M., R. R. Wagner (eds) Proceedings 18th International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications (DEXA) 3–7 September 2007, Regensburg, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, 673–677.Google Scholar
  64. Huettmann, F., 2007c. Modern adaptive management: adding digital opportunities towards a sustainable world with new values. Forum on Public Policy 3: 337–342.Google Scholar
  65. Huettmann, F., 2008. Marine conservation and sustainability of the Sea of Okhotsk in the Russian Far East: an overview of cumulative impacts, compiled public data, and a proposal for a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In Nijhoff, M. (ed.), Ocean Year Book, Vol. 22. Halifax, Canada: 353–374.Google Scholar
  66. Huettmann, F., 2009. The global need for, and appreciation of, high-quality metadata in biodiversity work. In Spehn, E. & C. Koerner (eds), Data Mining for Global Trends in Mountain Biodiversity. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis: 25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Huettmann, F., 2011a. From Europe to North America into the world and atmosphere: a short review of global footprints and their impacts and predictions. The Environmentalist. doi: 10.1007/s10669-011-9338-5.Google Scholar
  68. Huettmann, F., 2011b. Serving the global village through public data sharing as a mandatory paradigm for seabird biologists and managers: why, what, how, and a call for an efficient action plan. The Open Ornithology Journal 4: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Huettmann F (ed.) 2012. Protection of the Three Poles. Springer, Tokyo, p. 337. http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-4-431-54006-9#section=1049403&page=1.
  70. Huettmann, F., 2015. On the relevance and moral impediment of digital data management, data sharing, and public open access and open source code in (tropical) research: the rio convention revisited towards mega science and best professional research practices. In Huettmann, F. (ed.), Central American Biodiversity: Conservation, Ecology, and a Sustainable Future. Springer, New York: 391–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Huettmann, F. & M. S. Schmid, 2014a. Publicly available open access data and machine learning model-predictions applied with open source Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the entire Antarctic Ocean: A first meta-analysis and synthesis from 53 charismatic species. In Veress, B. & J. Szigethy (eds), Horizons in Earth Science Research, Vol. 11. Nova Science Publishers, New York: 23–33.Google Scholar
  72. Huettmann, F. & M. Schmid, 2014b. 9.1. Climate change and predictions of pelagic biodiversity components. In De Broyer, C., P. Koubbi, H. J. Griffiths, B. Raymond, C. d’Udekem d’Acoz, et al. (eds), Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Cambridge: 470–475.Google Scholar
  73. Huettmann, F., Y. Artukhin, O. Gilg & G. Humphries, 2011. Predictions of 27 Arctic pelagic seabird distributions using public environmental variables, assessed with colony data: a first digital IPY and GBIF open access synthesis platform. Marine Biodiversity 41: 141–179. doi: 10.1007/s12526-011-0083-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hund, A. 2014. Ross Sea: In Hund, A. (ed) Antarctica and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth’s Polar Regions. Vol. 2, 616–618. http://www.abc-clio.com/.
  75. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. International Association Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) 2012. Tourism Statistics. http://iaato.org/es/tourism-statistics.
  77. Jacobs, S. S., C. F. Giulivi, P. A. Mele, 2002. Freshening of the Ross Sea during the late 20th century. Science 297: 386–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jenouvrier, S., H. Caswell, C. Barbraud, M. Holland, J. Strœve & H. Weimerskirch, 2009. Demographic models and IPCC climate projections predict the decline of an emperor penguin population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 1844–1847.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kandel, K., F. Huettmann, M. K. Suwal, G. R. Regmi, V. Nijman, K. A. I. Nekaris, S. T. Lama, A. Thapa, H. P. Sharma & T. R. Subedi, 2015. Rapid multi-nation distribution assessment of a charismatic conservation species using open access ensemble model GIS predictions: Red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in the Hindu-Kush Himalaya region. Biological Conservation 181: 150–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kerry, K. R. & M. Riddle, 2009. Health of Antarctic Wildlife: A Challenge for Science and Policy. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kutz, S., 2012. Polar diseases and parasites: a conservation paradigm shift. In Huettmann, F. (ed.), Protection of the Three Poles. Springer, Tokyo: 247–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lanier, J. 2006. Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism. Accessed at http://edge.org/conversation/digital-maoism-the-hazards-of-the-new-online-ollectivism#21927 on April 1 2015.
  83. Lanier, J., 2013. Who owns the future?. Simon and Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  84. Lepage, D., 2007. Checklist of Birds of Antarctica. Bird Checklists of the World, Avibase.Google Scholar
  85. Link, J. S., 2010. Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Longhurst, A., 2010. Mismanagement of Marine Fisheries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lukowski, A. B., 1983. DDT residues in the tissues and eggs of three species of penguins from breeding colonies at Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands). Polish Polar Research 4: 129–134.Google Scholar
  88. Mace, G. M., W. Cramer, S. Diaz, D. P. Faith, A. Larigauderie, P. Le Prestre, M. Palmer, C. Perrings, R. J. Scholes, M. Walpole, B. A. Walther, J. A. Watson & H. A. Mooney, 2010. Biodiversity targets after 2010. Environment Sustainability 2: 1–6.Google Scholar
  89. Martinson, D. G., 2012. Antarctic circumpolar current’s role in the Antarctic ice system: an overview. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 335–336: 71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Magness, D. R., F. Huettmann, & J. M. Morton, 2008. Using random forests to provide predicted species distribution maps as a metric for ecological inventory & monitoring programs, pages 209-229 In T. G. Smolinski, M. G. Milanova & A-E. Hassanien (eds). Applications of Computational Intelligence in Biology: Current Trends and Open Problems. Studies in Computational Intelligence, Vol. 122, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  91. Magness, D., J. M. Morton & F. Huettmann, 2010. How spatial information contributes to the management and conservation of animals and habitats, Chapter 23. In Cushman, S. & F. Huettmann (eds), Spatial Complexity, Informatics and Wildlife Conservation. Springer, Tokyo: 429–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Nemitz, D., F. Huettmann, E. M. Spehn & W. B. Dickoré, 2012. Mining the Himalayan uplands plant database for a conservation baseline using the public GMBA webportal. In Huettmann, F. (ed.), Protection of the Three Poles. Springer Tokyo, Japan: 135–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ohse, B., F. Huettmann, S. Ickert-Bond & G. Juday, 2009. Modeling the distribution of white spruce (Picea glauca) for Alaska with high accuracy: an open access role-model for predicting tree species in last remaining wilderness areas. Polar Biology 32: 1717–1724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Orsi, A. H. & C. L. Wiederwohl, 2009. A recount of Ross Sea waters. Deep-Sea Research Part II 56: 778–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Orstom, E., 2010. Beyond markets and states: polycentric governance of complex economic systems. American Economic Review 100: 641–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Palacios-Huert, I., 2014. In 100 Years: Leading Economists Predict the Future. The MIT Press, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  97. Paleczny, M., E. Hammill, V. Karpouzi & D. Pauly, 2015. Population trend of the World’s monitored seabirds, 1950–2010. PLoS One 10: 0129342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0129342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Parsons, M. A., Ø. Godoy, E. LeDrew, T. de Bruin, B. Danis, S. Tomlinson & D. Carlson, 2011. A conceptual framework for managing very diverse data for complex, interdisciplinary science. Journal of Information Science. doi: 10.1177/016555150000000.Google Scholar
  99. Pauly, D., V. Christensen, J. Dalsgaard, R. Froese & F. Torres Jr, 1998. Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279: 860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pauly, D., V. Christensen, S. Guenette, T. J. Pitcher, U. R. Sumaila, C. J. Walters, R. Watson & D. Zeller, 2012. Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418: 689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pimm, S., 2000. Against triage. Science 289: 2289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pinkerton, M. H., J. M. Bradford-Grieve & S. M. Hanchet, 2010. A balanced model of the food web of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. CCAMLR Science 17: 1–31.Google Scholar
  103. Power, M. E. & S. Chapin, 2010. Planetary Stewardship, with an introduction from the Editor- in-Chief. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 91: 143–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Raymond, B., 2010. A Circumpolar Pelagic Regionalisation of the Southern Ocean. Australian Antarctic Division, Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Kingston.Google Scholar
  105. Reygondeau, D. & F. Huettmann, 2014. 9.2. Past, present and future state of pelagic habitats in the Antarctic Ocean. In De Broyer, C., P. Koubbi, H. Griffiths, B. Danis, B. David, S. Grant, J. Gutt, C. Held, G. Hosie, F. Huettmann, A. Post, Y. Ropert-Coudert & A. van den Putte (eds), The CAML/SCAR-MarBIN Biogeographic Atlas of the Southern Ocean. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR, Cambridge: 397–403.Google Scholar
  106. Rosales, J., 2008. Economic growth, climate change, biodiversity loss: distributive justice for the global north and south. Conservation Biology 22: 1409–1417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Schweder, T., 2001. Protecting whales by distorting uncertainty: non-precautionary mismanagement? Fisheries Research 52: 217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sherman, K., L. M. Alexander & B. D. Gold (eds.), 1990. Large marine ecosystems: patterns, processes and yields. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  109. Sherman K., L. M. Alexander & B. D. Gold (eds.), 1993. Large marine ecosystems: stress, mitigation and sustainability. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  110. Shirihai, H. & B. Jarrett, 2002. A Complete Guide to Antarctic Wildlife: The Birds and Marine Mammals of the Antarctic Continent and Southern Ocean. Alula Press, Degerby.Google Scholar
  111. Silva, N. J., 2012. The Wildlife Techniques Manual: Research & Management, Vol. 2, 7th ed. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, R. 2013. Capitalism and the destruction of life on Earth: six theses on saving the humans. Real-world Economics Review 64: 125–151, http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue64Smith64.pdf.
  113. Smith Jr, W. O., D. G. Ainley & R. Cattaneo-Vietti, 2007. Trophic interactions within the Ross Sea continental shelf ecosystem. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 362: 95–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Spehn, E. & C. Koerner (eds), 2009. Data Mining for Global Trends in Mountain Biodiversity. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  115. Steffen, W. 2002. Will technology spare the planet? In: Steffen, W., Jaeger, J., Carson, D., Bradshaw, C. (eds).Challenges of a Changing Earth: Proceedings of the Global Change Open Science Conference. The IGBP Global Change Series, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Amsterdam, New York, 10–13 July 2001,189–191.Google Scholar
  116. Steffen, W., P. J. Crutzen & J. R. McNeill, 2007. The Anthropocene: are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature? Ambio 36: 614–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stiglitz, J. E., 2006. Making Globalization Work. W.W. Norton & Company, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Summerson, R., 2012. Protection of wilderness and aesthetic values in Antarctica. In Huettmann, F. (ed.), Protection of the Three Poles. Springer, New York: 77–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Suzuki D. & P. Knudtson 1993. Wisdom of the Elders: Sacred Native Stories of Nature, Bantham.Google Scholar
  120. Thomas, D. N., G. E. Fogg, P. Convey, C. H. Fritsen, J. M. Gili, R. Gradinger, J. Parry-Laybourn, K. Reid & D. W. H. Walton, 2008. The Biology of Polar Regions. Biology of Habitats, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Thompson, D. W. J. & S. Solomon, 2002. Interpretation of Recent Southern Hemisphere Climate Change. Science 296: 895–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tin, T., D. Liggett, P. T. Maher & M. Lamers, 2014. Antarctic Futures: Human Engagement with the Antarctic Environment. Springer, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Turner, J., R. Bindschadler, P. Convey, G. di Prisco, E. Fahrbach, J. Gutt, D. Hodgson, P. Mayewski & C. Summerhayes, 2009. Antarctic Climate Change and THE Environment. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  124. United Nations Secretary-General’s Independent Expert Advisory Group on a Data Revolution for Sustainable Development (IEAG), (2014). A World that Counts: Mobilising the Data Revolution for Sustainable Development. www.undatarevolution.org
  125. Walters, C., 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. Blackburn Press, Caldwell.Google Scholar
  126. Waterhouse, E. J. (ed.), 2001. Ross Sea Region 2001: A State of the Environment Report for the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. New Zealand Antarctic Institute, Christchurch.Google Scholar
  127. Wei C. et al. (15 co-authors) 2011. A global analysis of marine benthos biomass using random forest. Public Library of Science (PLOS) 5:e15323.Google Scholar
  128. White House, 2013. Executive order—making open and machine readable the new default for government information. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/05/09/executive-order-making-open-and-machine-readable-new-default-government.
  129. Zuckerberg, B., F. Huettmann & J. Friar, 2011. Proper data management as a scientific foundation for reliable species distribution modeling, Chapter 3. In Drew, C. A., Y. Wiersma & F. Huettmann (eds), Predictive Species and Habitat Modeling in Landscape Ecology. Springer, New York: 45–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Falk Huettmann
    • 1
  • Moritz Sebastian Schmid
    • 2
  • Grant Richard Woodrow Humphries
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.EWHALE Lab, Biology and Wildlife Department, Institute of Arctic BiologyUniversity of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF)FairbanksUSA
  2. 2.Takuvik Joint International Laboratory UMI3376, Département de biologie and Québec-OcéanUniversité Laval, QuébecQuébecCanada
  3. 3.Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and BehaviorUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  4. 4.Farallon Institute for Advanced Ecosystem ResearchPetalumaUSA

Personalised recommendations