Functional characterisation of the haemoglobins of the migratory notothenioid fish Dissostichus eleginoides
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This study addresses the primary structure, the oxygen-binding properties and the CO-rebinding kinetics of the haemoglobins of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides. D. eleginoides belongs to the family Nototheniidae, the most diversified of the suborder Notothenioidei, mostly exhibiting an Antarctic distribution. Some of its features are typical of Antarctic species, some are not. For instance, D. eleginoides appears not to have functional antifreeze glycoproteins (consistent with its non-Antarctic distribution). In contrast, it has a major and a minor haemoglobin (similar to many Antarctic notothenioids), and their very low oxygen affinity does not follow the trend of other non-Antarctic notothenioids and appears typical of cold-adapted species. Moreover, the amino-acid sequence reveals high identity with the globins of Antarctic notothenioids, arguing in favour of a common origin within notothenioids, and indicates that the primary structure of the major and minor haemoglobins has undergone modifications only to a limited extent. The ligand-rebinding kinetics of the major haemoglobin of D. eleginoides indicate a strong stabilisation of the quaternary T state at lower pH values.
KeywordsAdaptation Notothenioidei Haemoglobin Regulation Structure/function
We thank the captain, crew and personnel of Raytheon Polar Services aboard the RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer for their excellent assistance during the ICEFISH cruise (2004) to collect fish specimens, supported by the National Science Foundation grant OPP 0132032 to H. William Detrich (Northeastern University). We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers, whose advice has significantly improved the manuscript.
This study has been supported by the Italian National Programme for Antarctic Research (PNRA) and Ministero degli Affari Esteri, Direzione generale per la promozione del sistema Paese (Progetti di Grande Rilevanza, Italia-Argentina 2011–2013). The project is in the framework of the SCAR programme “Antarctic Thresholds—Ecosystem Resilience and Adaptation” (AnT-ERA). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
The manuscript complies the Ethical rules of the journal. This study did not involve research on humans. Fish have been collected as part of faunal surveys. The protocols have undergone an ethical review process according to the international animal welfare laws, guidelines and policies. The amino-acid sequence data are reported in Swiss-Prot Protein Database under the accession numbers C0HJT6 (β1); C0HJT7(β2); C0HJT8(α1).
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