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Phylogeny of Nemertea with special interest in the placement of diversity from Far East Russia and northeast Asia

Abstract

Recent investigations, based mostly on molecular data, have unraveled the evolutionary history of several common ribbon worm (phylum Nemertea) species and solidified the taxonomic status of many higher taxa within the group. However, a large proportion of enigmatic species have yet to be placed in a phylogenetic framework. We investigated the phylogenetic positions of 26 novel and/or perplexing nemertean species from the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan, the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench, and Vietnam (including the first record of a reptant nemertean from the Far East seas of Russia). We conducted both maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses, utilizing four molecular loci—mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA, as well as nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA—finding that the current classification for most of these species is corroborated by their phylogenetic placement. We then discuss the evolution of some unique morphological traits possessed by some of these species, using the molecular phylogeny as a backbone for our general conclusions.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported in part by a Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants (14-04-01067 and 15-04-01933) to A.V.C. It was also supported by funding from the Wenner-Gren Foundations, Helge Ax:son and Olle Engkvist Byggmästare’s Foundation to S.K., as well as by internal funds from the Museum of Comparative Zoology to G.G. We thank the Harvard FAS Center for Systems Biology for providing sequencing support and the Willi Hennig Society for making TNT freely available. Three anonymous reviewers provided comments and ideas that greatly improved earlier versions of the paper.

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Correspondence to Sebastian Kvist.

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Kvist, S., Chernyshev, A.V. & Giribet, G. Phylogeny of Nemertea with special interest in the placement of diversity from Far East Russia and northeast Asia. Hydrobiologia 760, 105–119 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-015-2310-5

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Keywords

  • Nemertea
  • Phylogeny
  • Sea of Okhotsk
  • Sea of Japan
  • Vietnam
  • Kuril–Kamchatka Trench