Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 742, Issue 1, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Development of a multimetric index based on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities to assess water quality of rice fields in southern Brazil

  • Susane Melo
  • Cristina Stenert
  • Marina Schmidt Dalzochio
  • Leonardo Maltchik
Primary Research Paper

Abstract

In the last decade, dozens of indices based on macroinvertebrates were developed to evaluate lotic ecosystems. In contrast, very few of these indices have been applied in lentic ecosystems. Natural wetlands in southern Brazil are increasingly threatened by the expansion of irrigated rice. The main objective of this study was to develop a multimetric index based on macroinvertebrates to evaluate the water quality of natural wetlands and rice fields in southern Brazil. Three samplings were carried out over the rice growth cycle in four conventional and four biodynamic rice fields, and four natural wetlands. The wetlands were considered as reference sites, and the conventional and biodynamic rice crops were considered as manipulated sites at different levels of degradation. Seven metrics were included in the final index after passing though sensitivity and correlation tests. The results indicated that our index has a power to detect a gradient of variation in water quality. Natural wetlands had the best water quality, biodynamic crops had intermediate water quality, and the conventional crops had the lowest water quality. We believe that development of this macroinvertebrate-based multimetric index of water quality could be an important tool for monitoring natural wetlands and rice crops in southern Brazil.

Keywords

Agroecosystem Biomonitoring Biotic indices Cultivation system Wetland 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Dr. Martin Reichard for helpful comments on the manuscript and for English review. This research was supported by funds from CNPq (479820/2011-2) and FAPERGS (006/2010). Cristina Stenert and Leonardo Maltchik hold a Brazilian Research Council CNPq Research Productivity grant.

References

  1. Armitage, P. D., D. Moss, J. F. Wright & M. T. Furse, 1983. The performance of a new biological water quality score system based on macroinvertebrates over a wide range of unpolluted running-water sites. Water Research 17: 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badii, Z. M. H., C. R. Garza, A. V. Garza & F. J. Landeros, 2005. Los indicadores biológicos en la evaluación de la contaminación por agroquímicos en ecosistemas acuáticos y asociados. CULCyT 2: 4–20.Google Scholar
  3. Bambaradeniya, C. N. B., J. P. Edirisinghe, D. N. Silva, C. V. S. Gunatilleke, K. B. Ranawana & S. Wijekoon, 2004. Biodiversity associated with an irrigated rice agroecosystem in Sri Lanka. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 1715–1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbour, M. T., J. B. Stribling & J. R. Karr, 1995. Multimetric approach for establishing biocriteria and measuring biological condition. In Davis, W. S. & T. P. Simon (eds), Biological Assessment and Criteria. Tools for Water Resource Planning and Decision Making. Lewis Publishers, Florida: 63–77.Google Scholar
  5. Barbour, M. T., J. Gerritsen, G. E. Griffith, R. Frydenborg, E. Mccarron, J. S. White & M. L. Bastian, 1996. A framework for biological criteria for Florida streams using benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15: 185–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbour, M. T., J. Gerritsen, B. D. Snyder & J. B. Stribling, 1999. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, 2a ed. EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington.Google Scholar
  7. Bonada, N., N. Prat, V. H. Resh & B. Statzner, 2006. Developments in aquatic insect biomonitoring: a comparative analysis of recent approaches. Annual Review of Entomology 51: 495–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chessman, B. C., K. M. Trayler & J. A. Davis, 2002. Family- and species-level biotic indices for macroinvertebrates of wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. Marine & Freshwater Research 53: 919–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Convention on Biological Diversity, 2003. Report of the expert meeting on methods and guidelines for the Rapid Assessment of Biological diversity of inland water ecosystems. Eighth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal.Google Scholar
  10. Corbi, J. J, 2006. Influência de práticas de manejo de solo sobre os macroinvertebrados aquáticos de córregos: ênfase para o cultivo de cana-de-açúcar em áreas adjacentes. UFSCar, São Carlos, PhD Thesis.Google Scholar
  11. Costa, C. S. I. & C. E. Simonka, 2006. Insetos Imaturos. Metamorfose e Identificação. Holos, Ribeirão Preto.Google Scholar
  12. Couceiro, S. R. M., N. Hamada, B. R. Forsberg, T. P. Pimentel & S. L. B. Luz, 2012. A macroinvertebrate multimetric index to evaluate the biological condition of streams in the Central Amazon region of Brazil. Ecological Indicators 18: 118–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cummins, K. W., R. W. Merritt & P. C. N. Andrade, 2005. The use of invertebrate functional groups to characterize ecosystem attributes in selected streams and rivers in southeast Brazil. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 40: 71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Delong, M. D. & M. A. Brusven, 1998. Macroinvertebrate community structure along the longitudinal gradient of an agriculturally impacted stream. Environmental Resources Management 22: 445–457.Google Scholar
  15. Duran, M., 2006. Monitoring water quality using benthic macroinvertebrates and physicochemical parameters of Behzat stream in Turkey. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 15: 709–717.Google Scholar
  16. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2013. Rice Market Monitor, Vol. XVI. FAO Publications, Rome.Google Scholar
  17. Froehlich, C. G., 2007. Guia On-Line, Identificação de Larvas de Insetos Aquáticos do Estado de São Paulo. Available at: http://sites.ffclrp.usp.br/aguadoce/guiaonline. Accessed June 2013.
  18. Gernes, M. C. & J. C. Helgen, 1999. Indexes of Biotic Integrity for Wetlands: Vegetation and Invertebrates IBIs. Final Report to U.S. EPA, St. Paul.Google Scholar
  19. Gomes, A. S. & A. M. D. Magalhães Jr, 2004. Arroz Irrigado no Sul do Brasil (Irrigated Rice in Southern Brazil). Embrapa, Pelotas, RS.Google Scholar
  20. Hasegawa, H., Y. Furukawa & S. D. Kimura, 2005. On-farm assessment of organic amendments effects on nutrient status and nutrient use efficiency of organic rice fields in Northeastern Japan. Science 108: 350–362.Google Scholar
  21. Haugerud, N. J., 2003. Macroinvertebrate Biomonitoring Criteria and Community Composition in Seasonal Floodplain Wetlands of the Upper Missouri River. Available at: <http://pubstorage.sdstate.edu/wfs/thesis/Haugerud-Neil-J-MS-2003.pdf. Accessed Mar 2012.
  22. Hering, D., C. K. Feld, O. Moog & T. Ofenbock, 2006. Cook book for the development of a multimetric index for biological condition of aquatic ecosystems: experiences from the European AQEM and STAR projects and related initiatives. Hydrobiologia 566: 311–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hilsenhoff, W. L., 1988. Rapid field assessment of organic pollution with a family-level biotic index. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7: 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística—IBGE, 2003. Mapas temáticos do Projeto RADAMBRASIL do Rio Grande do Sul na escala 1: 250.000 (Carta SH 22- Y –B). IBGE/SAA-RS, Florianópolis.Google Scholar
  25. IRGA (Riograndense Institute of Rice), 2013. Safra 2012/2013. Available at: http://www.irga.rs.gov.br/upload/20130807102620safra_2012_13_rs_municipal. Accessed Oct 2013.
  26. Johnson, R. K., T. Wiederholm & D. M. Rosenberg, 1993. Freshwater biomonitoring using individual organisms, populations and species assemblages of benthic macroinvertebrates. In Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh (eds), Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Chapman Hall, New York: 40–158.Google Scholar
  27. Junqueira, M. V., M. C. Amarante, C. F. S. Dias & E. S. Franca, 2000. Biomonitoramento da qualidade das águas da bacia do Alto Rio das Velhas (MG/Brasil) através de macroinvertebrados. Acta Limnologica Brasiliense 12: 73–87.Google Scholar
  28. Karr, J. R. & E. W. Chu, 1999. Restoring Life in Running Waters: Better Biological Monitoring. Island Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  29. Kleine, P. & S. Trivinho-Strixino, 2005. Chironomidae and other aquatic macroinvertebrates of a first other stream: community response after habitat fragmentation. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia 17: 81–90.Google Scholar
  30. Kolkwitz, R. & K. Marsson, 1909. Okologie der tierischen saprobien: beitrage zur lehre von des biologischen gewasserbeurteilung. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 2: 126–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maltchik, L., E. Schneider, G. Becker & A. Escobar, 2003. Inventory of wetlands of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). Pesquisas 53: 89–100.Google Scholar
  32. Mandaville, S. M., 2002. Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Freshwaters-Taxa Tolerance Values, Metrics, and Protocols. Avaliable at: <http://lakes.chebucto.org/H-1/tolerance.pdf>. Accessed June 2012.
  33. Mereta, S. T., P. Boets, L. De Meester & P. L. M. Goethals, 2013. Development of a multimetric index based on benthic macroinvertebrates for the assessment of natural wetlands in Southwest Ethiopia. Ecological Indicators 29: 510–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Merritt, R. W., K. W. Cummins & M. B. Berg, 2008. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co, Iowa.Google Scholar
  35. Minns, C. K., V. W. Cairns, R. G. Randall & J. E. Moore, 1994. An index of biotic integrity (IBI) for fish assemblages in the littoral zone of Great Lakes’ area of concern. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 51: 1804–1822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Molozzi, J., J. M. Feio, F. Salas, J. C. Marques & M. Callisto, 2012. Development and test of a statistical model for the ecological assessment of tropical reservoirs based on benthic macroinvertebrates. Ecological Indicators 23: 155–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moya, N., R. M. Hughes, E. Domíngue, F. M. Gibon, E. Goitia & T. Oberdorff, 2011. Macroinvertebrate-based multimetric predictive models for evaluating the human impact on biotic condition of Bolivian streams. Ecological Indicators 11: 840–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oliveira, R. B. S., C. M. Castro & D. F. Baptista, 2008. Desenvolvimento de índices multimétricos para utilização em programas de monitoramento biológico da integridade de escossistemas aquáticos. Oecologia Brasiliensis 12: 487–505.Google Scholar
  39. Oliveira, R. B., D. F. Baptista, R. Mugnai, C. M. Castro & R. M. Hughes, 2011. Towards rapid bioassessment of wadeable streams in Brazil: Development of the Guapiaçu-Macacu Multimetric Index (GMMI) based on benthic macroinvertebrates. Ecological Indicators 11: 1584–1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Toole, C., I. Donohue, S. J. Moe & K. Irvine, 2008. Nutrient optima and tolerances of benthic invertebrates, the effects of taxonomic resolution and testing of selected metrics in lakes using an extensive European data base. Aquatic Ecology 42: 277–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Panatta, A., C. Stenert, E. M. Santos & L. Maltchik, 2007. Diversity and distribution of chironomid larvae in wetlands in southern Brazil. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 80: 229–242.Google Scholar
  42. Pingali, P. L. & P. A. Roger, 1995. Impact of Pesticides on Farmer Health and Rice Environment. Kluwer Academic Publisher and International Rice Research Institute IRRI, Philippines.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Richardson, A. J. & I. R. Taylor, 2003. Are rice fields in southeastern Australia an adequate substitute for natural wetlands as foraging areas for egrets? Waterbirds 26: 353–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rizo-Patrón, F., A. Kumar, M. B. Colton, M. Springer & F. A. Trama, 2013. Macroinvertebrate communities as bioindicators of water quality in conventional and organic irrigated rice fields in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Ecological Indicators 29: 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roger, P. A., 1996. Biology and Management of Flood Water Ecosystem in Ricefields. International Rice Research Institute, Philippines.Google Scholar
  46. Rosenberg, D. M. & V. H. Resh, 1993. Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Chapman & Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Russi, D., P. ten Brink, A. Farmer, T. Badura, D. Coates, J. Förster, R. Kumar & N. Davidson, 2013. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands. Ramsar Secretariat, London and Brussels.Google Scholar
  48. Silveira, M. P., D. F. Baptista, D. F. Buss, J. L. Nessimian & M. Egler, 2005. Application of biological measures for stream integrity assessment in South-East Brazil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 101: 117–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith, M. J., W. R. Kay, D. H. D. Edward, P. J. Papas, K. S. T. J. Richardsonm, J. C. Simpson, A. M. Pinder, D. J. Cale, P. H. J. Horwitz, J. A. Davis, F. H. Yung, R. H. Norris & A. S. Halsel, 1999. AusRivAS: using macroinvertebrates to assess ecological condition of rivers in Western Australia. Freshwater Biology 41: 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stenert, C., L. Maltchik & O. Rocha, 2012. Diversidade de invertebrados aquáticos em arrozais no Sul do Brasil. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 7: 67–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stenert, C., R. C. Bacca, C. C. Mostardeiro & L. Maltchik, 2008. Environmental predictors of macroinvertebrate communities in coastal wetlands of southern Brazil. Marine & Freshwater Research 59: 540–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stoddard, J. L., D. V. Peck, S. G. Paulsen, J. Van-Sickle, C. P. Hawkins, A. T. Herlihy, R. M. Hughes, P. R. Kaufmann, D. P. Larsen, G. Lomnicky, A. R. Olsen, S. A. Peterson, P. L. Ringold & T. R. Whittier, 2005. An Ecological Assessment of Western Streams and Rivers. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  53. Stoddard, J. L., A. T. Herlihy, D. V. Peck, R. M. Hughes, T. R. Whittier & E. Tarquinio, 2008. A process for creating multimetric indices for large-scale aquatic surveys. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27: 878–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Systat, 2007. Systat Software. Richmond, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  55. Takamura, K. & M. Yasuno, 1986. Effects of pesticide application on chironomid larvae and ostracods in ricefields. Applied Entomology and Zoology 21: 370–376.Google Scholar
  56. Thorne, R. S. J. & W. P. Williams, 1997. The response of benthic macroinvertebrates to pollution in developing countries: a multimetric system of bioassessment. Freshwater Biology 37: 671–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. U.S. EPA., 2002. Methods for Evaluating Wetland Condition: Developing an Invertebrate Index of Biological Integrity for Wetlands. Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  58. Whittier, T. R., R. M. Hughes, J. L. Stoddard, G. A. Lomnicky, D. V. Peck & A. T. Herlihy, 2007. A structured approach for developing indices of biotic integrity: three examples from western USA streams and rivers. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136: 718–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wilson, A. L., R. J. Watts & M. M. Stevens, 2008. Effects of different management regimes on aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity in Australian rice fields. Ecological Research 23: 565–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wissinger, S. A., 1999. Ecology of wetland invertebrates. In Batzer, D. P., R. B. Rader & S. A. Wissinger (eds), Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America: Ecology and Management. John Wiley and Sons, Nova York: 1043–1086.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susane Melo
    • 1
  • Cristina Stenert
    • 1
  • Marina Schmidt Dalzochio
    • 1
  • Leonardo Maltchik
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Ecology and Conservation of Aquatic EcosystemsUniversity of Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS)São LeopoldoBrazil

Personalised recommendations