, Volume 738, Issue 1, pp 205–220 | Cite as

Biogeography of freshwater fishes of the Balkan Peninsula

  • Anthi OikonomouEmail author
  • Fabien Leprieur
  • Ioannis D. LeonardosEmail author
Primary Research Paper


Delineating biogeographical regions is a critical step towards the establishment and evaluation of conservation priorities. In the present study, we analysed the distribution patterns of the freshwater fish of an understudied European biodiversity hotspot, the Balkan Peninsula. Based on the most extensive available database of native freshwater fish species distributions, we performed a hierarchical clustering analysis to identify the major biogeographical regions of the Balkan Peninsula. We also highlighted the ‘hottest hotspots’ of freshwater fish diversity across the delimited biogeographical regions by describing the patterns of species richness, endemic and vulnerable species; indicator species were also determined. The bioregionalisation scheme consisted of eight groups of drainage basins that correspond to distinct regions of the Balkan Peninsula. Overall, the delineated biogeographical regions varied in terms of species richness, endemism, vulnerability (i.e. extinction threats) and indicator species composition. From a conservation perspective, this study emphasises the prioritisation of areas characterised by high levels of irreplaceability (endemism) and vulnerability (i.e. the Attikobeotia region, Ionian Sea and Prespa Lakes) and stresses the necessity of implementing a network of protected freshwater areas across the Balkan Peninsula.


Balkan Peninsula Beta diversity Bioregionalisation Endemism Freshwater fish Vulnerability 



Alkiviades Economou provided insightful points which improved the manuscript. We are grateful to Milorad Mrakovčić, Marko Ćaleta and Zoran Marčić for the thoughtful comments and providing data on the distribution of Croatian freshwater fishes. We especially thank Simo Georgiev, Predrag Simonović, Avdo Sofradžija, Avdul Adrović, Trajce Talevski, Tomislav Treer, Apostolos Apostolou, Pero Tutman, Lachezar Pehlivanov, Mirjana Lenhardt, Argyris Sapounidis and Tihomir Stefanov for granting us access to scientific papers, books and reviews.

Supplementary material

10750_2014_1930_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (397 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 398 kb)
10750_2014_1930_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (216 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 217 kb)
10750_2014_1930_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (121 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 121 kb)
10750_2014_1930_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (143 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 144 kb)
10750_2014_1930_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (135 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (PDF 135 kb)


  1. Abell, R., M. L. Thieme, C. Revenga, M. Bryer, M. Kottelat, N. G. Bogutskaya, B. Coad, N. Mandrak, S. C. Balderas, W. Bussing, M. L. J. Stiassny, P. Skelton, G. R. Allen, P. Unmack, A. Naseka, R. Ng, N. Sindorf, J. Robertson, J. E. Armijo, J. V. Higgins, T. J. Heibe, E. Wikramanayake, D. Olson, H. L. Lopéz, R. E. Reis, G. Lundberg, M. H. S. Pérez & P. Petry, 2008. Freshwater ecoregions of the world: a new map of biogeographic units for freshwater biodiversity conservation. BioScience 58: 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht, C. & T. Wilke, 2008. Lake Ohrid: biodiversity and evolution. Hydrobiologia 615: 103–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albrecht, C., C. Wolff, P. Glöer & T. Wilke, 2008. Concurrent evolution of ancient sister lakes and sister species: the freshwater gastropod genus Radix in lakes Ohrid and Prespa. Hydrobiologia 615: 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amataj, S., T. Anovski, R. Benischke, R. Eftimi, L. L. Gourcy, L. Kola, I. Leontiadis, E. Micevski, A. Stamos & J. Zoto, 2007. Tracer methods used to verify the hypothesis of Cvijić about the underground connection between Prespa and Ohrid Lake. Environmental Geology 51: 749–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, M. J., T. O. Crist, J. M. Chase, M. Vellend, B. D. Inouye, A. L. Freestone, N. J. Sanders, H. V. Cornell, L. S. Comita, K. F. Davies, S. P. Harrison, N. J. B. Kraft, J. C. Stegen & N. G. Swenson, 2011. Navigating the multiple meanings of β diversity: a roadmap for the practicing ecologist. Ecology Letters 14: 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Apostolidis, A. P., C. Triantaphyllidis, A. Kouvatsi & P. S. Economidis, 1997. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography among Salmo trutta L. (Greek brown trout) populations. Molecular Ecology 6: 531–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balian, E. V., C. Lévêque, H. Segers & K. Martens, 2008. The freshwater animal diversity assessment: an overview of the results. Hydrobiologia 595: 627–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bănărescu, P. M., 2004. Distribution pattern of the aquatic fauna of the Balkan Peninsula. In Griffiths, H. J., B. Kryštufek & J. M. Reed (eds), Balkan Biodiversity, Pattern and Process in the European Hotspot. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 203–217.Google Scholar
  9. Baselga, A., 2012. The relationship between species replacement, dissimilarity derived from nestedness, and nestedness. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21: 1223–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berrebi, P., C. Tougard, S. Dubois, Z. Shao, I. Koutseri, S. Petkovski & A. J. Crivelli, 2013. Genetic diversity and conservation of the Prespa trout in the Balkans. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14: 23454–23470.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bianco, P. G., 1990. Potential role of the paleohistory of the Mediterranean and Paratethys basins on the early dispersal of Euro-Mediterranean freshwater fishes. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 1: 167–184.Google Scholar
  12. Bianco, P. G., 2013. An update on the status of native and exotic freshwater fishes of Italy. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 30: 62–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohlen, J., A. Perdices, I. Doadrio & P. S. Economidis, 2006. Vicariance, colonisation, and fast local speciation in Asia Minor and the Balkans as revealed from the phylogeny of spined loaches (Osteichthyes; Cobitidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 552–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brooks, T., 2010. Conservation planning and priorities. In Sodhi, N. S. & P. R. Ehrlich (eds), Conservation Biology for All. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 199–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collen, B., F. Whitton, E. E. Dyer, J. E. M. Baillie, N. Cumberlidge, W. R. T. Darwall, C. Pollock, N. I. Richman, A.-M. Soulsby & M. Böhm, 2014. Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and endemism. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23: 40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper, S. J. B., K. M. Ibrahim & G. M. Hewitt, 1995. Postglacial expansion and genome subdivision in the European grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus. Molecular Ecology 4: 49–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Darwall, W. R. T., R. A. Holland, K. G. Smith, D. Allen, E. G. E. Brooks, V. Katarya, C. M. Pollock, Y. Shi, V. Clausnitzer, N. Cumberlidge, A. Cuttelod, K. B. Dijkstra, M. D. Diop, N. García, M. B. Seddon, P. H. Skelton, J. Snoeks, D. Tweddle & J. Vié, 2011. Implications of bias in conservation research and investment for freshwater species. Conservation Letters 4: 474–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Cáceres, M., P. Legendre, R. Valencia, M. Cao, L.-W. Chang, G. Chuyong, R. Condit, Z. Hao, C.-H. Hsieh, S. Hubbell, D. Kenfack, K. Ma, X. Mi, Md. N. Supardi Noor, A. R. Kassim, H. Ren, S.-H. Su, I.-F. Sun, D. Thomas, W. Ye & F. He, 2012. The variation of tree beta diversity across a global network of forest plots. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21: 1191–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Klerk, H. M., T. M. Crowe, J. Fjeldsa & N. D. Burgess, 2002. Biogeographical patterns of endemic terrestrial Afrotropical birds. Diversity and Distributions 8: 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. DeFaveri, J., L. N. Zanella, D. Zanella, M. Mrakovčić & J. Merilä, 2012. Phylogeography of isolated freshwater threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in the Adriatic Sea basin. Journal of Fish Biology 80: 61–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Delling, B., 2010. Diversity of western and southern Balkan trouts, with the description of a new species from the Louros River, Greece (Teleostei: Salmonidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 21: 331–344.Google Scholar
  22. Dudgeon, D., A. H. Arthington, M. O. Gessner, Z. Kawabata, D. J. Knowler, C. Lévêque, R. J. Naiman, A. H. Prieur-Richard, D. Soto, M. L. Stiassny & C. A. Sullivan, 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 81: 163–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dufrêne, M. & P. Legendre, 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs 67: 345–366.Google Scholar
  24. Durand, J. D., H. Persat & Y. Bouvet, 1999. Phylogeography and postglacial dispersion of the chub (Leuciscus cephalus) in Europe. Molecular Ecology 8: 989–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Durand, J. D., P. G. Bianco, J. Laroche & A. Gilles, 2003. Insight into the origin of endemic Mediterranean ichthyofauna: phylogeography of Chondrostoma genus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae). Journal of Heredity 94: 315–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Economidis, P. S. & P. M. Bănărescu, 1991. The distribution and origins of freshwater fishes in the Balkan Peninsula, especially in Greece. Internationale Revue Der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 76: 257–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Economou, A. N., S. Giakoumi, L. Vardakas, R. Barbieri, M. Stoumboudi & S. Zogaris, 2007. The freshwater ichthyofauna of Greece: an update based on a hydrographic basin survey. Mediterranean Marine Science 8: 91–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. FishBase, 2013. World Wide Web electronic publication. Version 2013. Available at:
  29. Freyhof, J., 2012. Threatened freshwater fishes and mollusks of the Balkan. Potential impact of hydropower projects. Unpublished report, ECA Watch Austria & Euronatur, Berlin.Google Scholar
  30. Fritz, U., D. Guicking, H. Kami, M. Arakelyan, M. Auer, D. Ayaz, D. Ayres Fernández, A. G. Bakiev, A. Celani, G. Džukić, S. Fahd, P. Havaš, U. Joger, V. F. Khabibullin, L. F. Mazanaeva, P. Šíroký, S. Tripepi, A. Valdeón Vélez, G. Velo Antón & M. Wink, 2007. Mitochondrial phylogeography of European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis, Emys trinacris) – an update. Amphibia-Reptilia 28: 418–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frogley, M. R. & R. C. Preece, 2004. A faunistic review of the modern and fossil molluscan fauna from Lake Pamvotis, Ioannina, an ancient lake in NW Greece: implications for endemism in the Balkans. In Griffiths, H. J., B. Kryštufek & J. M. Reed (eds), Balkan Biodiversity, Pattern and Process in the European Hotspot. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 243–260.Google Scholar
  32. Gaubert, P., G. Denys & T. Oberdorff, 2009. Genus-level supertree of Cyprinidae (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes), partitioned qualitative clade support and test of macro-evolutionary scenarios. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 84: 653–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gómez, A. & D. H. Lunt, 2007. Refugia within refugia: patterns of phylogeographic concordance in the Iberian Peninsula. In Weiss, S. & N. Ferrand (eds), Phylogeography of Southern European Refugia. Springer, Dordrecht: 155–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. González-Orozco, C. E., A. H. Thornhill, K. Knerr, S. Laffan & J. T. Miller, 2013. Biogeographical regions and phytogeography of the eucalypts. Diversity and Distributions 20: 46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Griffiths, D., 2006. Pattern and process in the ecological biogeography of European freshwater fishes. Journal of Animal Ecology 75: 734–751.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Griffiths, D., C. McGonigle & R. Quinn, 2014. Climate and species richness patterns of freshwater fish in North America and Europe. Journal of Biogeography 41: 452–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Groves, C. R., D. B. Jensen, L. L. Valutis, K. H. Redford, M. L. Shaffer, J. M. Scott, J. V. Baumgartner, J. V. Higgins, M. W. Beck & M. G. Anderson, 2002. Planning for biodiversity conservation: putting conservation science into practice. BioScience 52: 499–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hänfling, B., C. Dumpelmann, N. G. Bogutskaya, R. Brandl & M. Brändle, 2009. Shallow phylogeographic structuring of Vimba vimba across Europe suggests two distinct refugia during the last glaciation. Journal of Fish Biology 75: 2269–2286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Heino, J., 2011. A macroecological perspective of diversity patterns in the freshwater realm. Freshwater Biology 56: 1703–1722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hermoso, V. & M. Clavero, 2011. Threatening processes and conservation management of endemic freshwater fish in the Mediterranean Basin: a review. Marine and Freshwater Research 62: 244–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Himmerkus, F., T. Reischmann & D. K. Kostopoulos, 2006. Late Proterozoic and Silurian basement units within the Serbo-Macedonian Massif, northern Greece: the significance of terrane accretion in the Hellenides. In Robertson, A. H. F. & D. Mountrakis (eds), Tectonic Development of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Geological Society Publishing House, Bath: 35–50.Google Scholar
  42. Hoagstrom, C. W. & C. R. Berry Jr, 2006. Island biogeography of native fish faunas among Great Plains drainage basins: basin scale features influence composition. American Fisheries Society Symposium 48: 221–264.Google Scholar
  43. Holland, R. A., W. R. T. Darwall & K. G. Smith, 2012. Conservation priorities for freshwater biodiversity: the key biodiversity area approach refined and tested for continental Africa. Biological Conservation 148: 167–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Holt, B. G., J. P. Lessard, M. K. Borregaard, S. A. Fritz, M. B. Araújo, D. Dimitrov, P.-H. Fabre, C. H. Graham, G. R. Graves, K. A. Jønsson, D. Nogués-Bravo, Z. Wang, R. J. Whittaker, J. Fjeldså & C. Rahbek, 2013. An update of Wallace’s zoogeographic regions of the World. Science 339: 74–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hugueny, B., T. Oberdorff & P. A. Tedesco, 2010. Community ecology of river fishes: a large scale perspective. In Gido, K. B. & D. A. Jackson (eds), Community Ecology of Stream Fishes: Concepts, Approaches, and Techniques. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MA: 29–62.Google Scholar
  46. IUCN, 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. Available at:
  47. Jetz, W., C. Rahbek & R. K. Colwell, 2004. The coincidence of rarity and richness and the potential signature of history in centres of endemism. Ecology Letters 7: 1180–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kang, B., J. M. Deng, Y. Wu, L. Chen, J. Zhang, H. Qiu, Y. Lu & D. He, 2013. Mapping China’s freshwater fishes: diversity and biogeography. Fish and Fisheries. doi: 10.1111/faf.12011.Google Scholar
  49. Kelley, L. A., S. P. Gardner & M. J. Sutcliffe, 1996. An automated approach for clustering an ensemble of NMR-derived protein structures into conformationally related subfamilies. Protein Engineering 9: 1063–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kier, G., H. Kreft, T. M. Lee, W. Jetz, P. L. Ibisch, C. Nowicki, J. Mutke & W. Barthlott, 2009. A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106: 9322–9327.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Korniushin, A., 2004. The bivalve mollusc fauna and biogeography of lakes Ohrid and Prespa. In Griffiths, H. J., B. Kryštufek & J. M. Reed (eds), Balkan Biodiversity, Pattern and Process in the European Hotspot. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 230–237.Google Scholar
  52. Kottelat, M. & J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol.Google Scholar
  53. Kreft, H. & W. Jetz, 2010. A framework for delineating biogeographical regions based on species distributions. Journal of Biogeography 37: 2029–2053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kryštufek, B., 2004. A quantitative assessment of Balkan mammal diversity. In Griffiths, H. J., B. Kryštufek & J. M. Reed (eds), Balkan Biodiversity, Pattern and Process in the European Hotspot. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 19–108.Google Scholar
  55. Kryštufek, B. & J. M. Reed, 2004. Pattern and process in Balkan biodiversity – an overview. In Griffiths, H. J., B. Kryštufek & J. M. Reed (eds), Balkan Biodiversity, Pattern and Process in the European Hotspot. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 1–8.Google Scholar
  56. Kryštufek, B., E. Bužan, W. F. Hutchinson & B. Hänfling, 2007. Phylogeography of the rare Balkan endemic Martino’s vole, Dinaromys bogdanovi, reveals strong differentiation within the western Balkan Peninsula. Molecular Ecology 16: 1221–1232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lamoreux, J. F., J. C. Morrison, T. H. Ricketts, D. M. Olson, E. Dinerstein, M. W. McKnight & H. H. Shugart, 2006. Global tests of biodiversity concordance and the importance of endemism. Nature 440: 212–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leprieur, F. & A. Oikonomou, 2014. The need for richness-independent measures of turnover when delineating biogeographical regions. Journal of Biogeography 41: 417–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leprieur, F., O. Beauchard, S. Blanchet, T. Oberdorff & S. Brosse, 2008a. Fish invasions in the world’s river systems: when natural processes are blurred by human activities. PLoS Biology 6: e28.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leprieur, F., O. Beauchard, B. Hugueny, G. Grenouillet & S. Brosse, 2008b. Null model of biotic homogenization: a test with the European freshwater fish fauna. Diversity and Distributions 14: 291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Leprieur, F., P. Tedesco, B. Hugueny, O. Beauchard, H. Dür, S. Brosse & T. Oberdorff, 2011. Partitioning global patterns of freshwater fish beta diversity reveals contrasting signatures of past climate changes. Ecology Letters 14: 325–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Levy, A., I. Doadrio & V. C. Almada, 2009. Historical biogeography of European leuciscins (Cyprinidae): evaluating the Lago Mare dispersal hypothesis. Journal of Biogeography 36: 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Logez, M., D. Pont & M. Ferreira, 2010. Do Iberian and European fish faunas exhibit convergent functional structure along environmental gradients? Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29: 1310–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lomolino, M. V., 2004. Conservation biogeography. In Lomolino, M. V. & L. R. Heaney (eds), Frontiers of Biogeography: New Directions in the Geography of Nature. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA: 293–296.Google Scholar
  65. Maceda-Veiga, A., 2013. Towards the conservation of freshwater fish: Iberian Rivers as an example of threats and management practices. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 23: 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment), 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  67. Mérigot, B., J. P. Durbec & J. C. Gaertner, 2010. On goodness-of-fit measure for dendrogram-based analyses. Ecology 91: 1850–1859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Myers, N., R. A. Mittermeier, C. G. Mittermeier, G. A. B. da Fonseca & J. Kent, 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Oberdorff, T., S. Lek & J.-F. Guégan, 1999. Patterns of endemism in riverine fish of the Northern Hemisphere. Ecology Letters 2: 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Olden, J. D., M. J. Kennard, F. Leprieur, P. A. Tedesco, K. O. Winemiller & E. García-Berthou, 2010. Conservation biogeography of freshwater fishes: recent progress and future challenges. Diversity and Distributions 16: 496–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parmakelis, A., I. Stathi, M. Chatzaki, S. Simaiakis, L. Spanos, C. Louis & M. Mylonas, 2006. Evolution of Mesobuthus gibbosus (Brullé, 1832) (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in the north-eastern Mediterranean region. Molecular Ecology 15: 2883–2894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pavelić, D. & M. Belak, 2008. Dinarids in north Croatia and Bosnia. In McCann, T. (ed.), The Geology of Central Europe, Vol. 2., Mesosoicand Cenozoic Geological Society, London: 1102–1116.Google Scholar
  73. Perdices, A. & I. Doadrio, 2001. The molecular systematics and biogeography of the European cobitids based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19: 468–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Perea, S., M. Böhme, P. Zupančič, J. Freyhof, R. Šanda, M. Özuluğ, A. Abdoli & I. Doadrio, 2010. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical patterns in Circum-Mediterranean subfamily Leuciscinae (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) inferred from both mitochondrial and nuclear data. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 265.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Perissoratis, C. & N. Conispoliatis, 2003. The impacts of sea-level changes during latest Pleistocene and Holocene times on the morphology of the Ionian and Aegean seas (SE Alpine Europe). Marine Geology 196: 145–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Peter, F., 2006. Biodiversity of European Freshwater Fish – Threats and Conservation Priorities at the Catchment Scale. Department of Geography, Basel.Google Scholar
  77. Pimm, S. L., 1999. Seeing both the woods and the trees. Nature 402: 853–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Platts, P. J., N. D. Burgess, R. E. Gereau, J. C. Lovett, A. R. Marshall, C. J. McClean, P. K. E. Pellikka, R. D. Swetnam & R. Marchant, 2011. Delimiting tropical mountain ecoregions for conservation. Environmental Conservation 38: 312–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Poulakakis, N., P. Lymberakis, E. Valakos, E. Zouros & M. Mylonas, 2005. Phylogenetic relationships and biogeography of Podarcis species from the Balkan Peninsula, by Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37: 845–857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Previšic, A., C. Walton, M. Kučinić, P. T. Mitrikeski & M. Kerovec, 2009. Pleistocene divergence of Dinaric Drusus endemics (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) in multiple microrefugia within the Balkan Peninsula. Molecular Ecology 18: 634–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Qian, H., C. Badgley & D. L. Fox, 2009. The latitudinal gradient in beta diversity in relation to climate and topography for mammals in North America. Global Ecology and Biogeography 18: 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. R Development Core Team, 2013. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Version 3.0.2. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
  83. Radoman, P., 1985. Hydrobioidea, a superfamily of Prosobranchia (Gastropoda) II. Origin, zoogeography, evolution in the Balkans and Asia Minor. Monographs. Institute of Zoology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Belgrade.Google Scholar
  84. Reidy Liermann, C., C. Nilsson, J. Robertson & R. Y. Ng, 2012. Implications of dam obstruction for global freshwater fish diversity. BioScience 62: 539–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reyjol, Y., B. Hugueny, D. Pont, P. G. Bianco, U. Beier, N. Caiola, F. Casals, I. Cowx, A. N. Economou, T. Ferreira, G. Haidvogl, R. Noble, A. De Sostoa, T. Vigneron & T. Virbickas, 2007. Patterns in species richness and endemism of European freshwater fish. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ricketts, T. H., 2001. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales? Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 91–99.Google Scholar
  87. Robalo, J., V. C. Almada, A. Levy & I. Doadrio, 2007. Re-examination and phylogeny of the genus Chondrostoma based on mitochondrial and nuclear data and the definition of 5 new genera. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42: 362–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ruffo, S. & F. Stoch, 2006. Checklist and Distribution of the Italian Fauna. Memorie del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona. 2o Serie. Accessed 26 Sep 2013.
  89. Sanjur, O. I., J. A. Carmona & I. Doadrio, 2003. Evolutionary and biogeographical patterns within Iberian populations of the genus Squalius inferred from molecular data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29: 20–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schultheiß, R., C. Albrecht, U. Bößneck & T. Wilke, 2008. The neglected side of speciation in ancient lakes: phylogeography of an inconspicuous mollusc taxon in lakes Ohrid and Prespa. Hydrobiologia 615: 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Skoulikidis, N., A. N. Economou, K. Gritzalis & S. Zogaris, 2009. Rivers of the Balkans. In Tockner, K., U. Uehlinger & C. C. T. Robinson (eds), Rivers of Europe. Academic Press, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 421–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Šlechtová, V., J. Bohlen, J. Freyhof, H. Persat & G. B. Delmastro, 2004. The Alps as a barrier to dispersal incold-adapted fishes? Phylogeographic history and taxonomic status of the bullhead in the Adriatic freshwater drainage. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 225–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith, K. G. & W. R. T. Darwall, 2006. The status and distribution of freshwater fish endemic to the Mediterranean Basin. IUCN, Gland.Google Scholar
  94. Sommerwerk, N., T. Hein, M. Schneider-Jakoby, C. Baumgartner, A. Ostojić, M. Paunović, J. Bloesch, R. Siber & K. Tockner, 2009. The Danube river basin. In Tockner, K., U. Uehlinger & C. C. T. Robinson (eds), Rivers of Europe. Academic Press, Elsevier, Amsterdam: 59–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Spalding, M. D., H. E. Fox, G. R. Allen, N. Davidson, Z. A. Ferdaña, M. Finlayson, B. S. Halpern, M. A. Jorge, A. Lombana, S. A. Lourie, K. D. Martin, E. McManus, J. Molnar, Ch A Recchia & J. Robertson, 2007. Marine ecoregions of the world: a bioregionalization of coast and shelf areas. BioScience 57: 573–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Surina, B., P. Schönswetter & G. M. Schneeweiss, 2011. Quaternary range dynamics of ecologically contrasting species (Edraianthus serpyllifolius and E. tenuifolius, Campanulaceae) within the Balkan refugium. Journal of Biogeography 38: 1381–1393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tedesco, P. A., F. Leprieur, B. Hugueny, S. Brosse, H. H. Dürr, O. Beauchard, F. Busson & T. Oberdorff, 2012. Patterns and processes of global freshwater fish endemism. Global Ecology and Biogeography 21: 977–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tisseuil, C., J. F. Cornu, O. Beauchard, S. Brosse, W. Darwall, R. Holland, B. Hugueny, P. A. Tedesco & T. Oberdorff, 2013. Global diversity patterns and cross-taxa convergence in freshwater systems. Journal of Animal Ecology 82: 365–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tsoumani, M., A. P. Apostolidis & I. D. Leonardos, 2013. Biogeography of Rutilus species of the southern Balkan Peninsula as inferred by multivariate analysis of morphological data. Journal of Zoology 289: 204–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vanhove, M. P. M., A. N. Economou, S. Zogaris, M. H. D. Larmuseau, S. Giakoumi, E. Kalogianni, F. A. M. Volckaert & T. Huyse, 2012. Phylogenetics and biogeography of the Balkan ‘sand gobies’ (Teleostei: Gobiidae): vulnerable species in need of taxonomic revision. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 105: 73–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wagner, B., H. Vogel, G. Zanchetta & R. Sulpizio, 2010. Environmental change within the Balkan region during the past ca. 50 ka recorded in the sediments from lakes Prespa and Ohrid. Biogeosciences 7: 3187–3198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Whittaker, R. J., M. B. Araújo, P. Jepson, R. Ladle, J. E. Watson & K. J. Willis, 2005. Conservation biogeography: assessment and prospect. Diversity and Distribution 11: 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wilke, T., R. Schultheiß, C. Albrecht, N. Bornmann, S. Trajanovski & T. Kevrekidis, 2010. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes. Biogeosciences 7: 3051–3061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zardoya, R. & I. Doadrio, 1999. Molecular evidence on the evolutionary and biogeographical patterns of European Cyprinids. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49: 227–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zogaris, S., A. N. Economou & P. Dimopoulos, 2009. Ecoregions in the southern Balkans: should their boundaries be revised? Environmental Management 43: 682–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Zoology, Department of Biological Applications and TechnologyUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece
  2. 2.Laboratoire Ecologie des Systèmes Marins Côtiers UMR 5119CNRS, IRD, IFREMER, UM2, UM1, cc 093Montpellier Cedex 5France

Personalised recommendations