Using an online phycocyanin fluorescence probe for rapid monitoring of cyanobacteria in Macau freshwater reservoir
- 594 Downloads
Monitoring of cyanobacteria and their toxins are traditionally conducted by cell counting, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) determination and cyanotoxin measurements, respectively. These methods are tedious, costly, time consuming, and insensitive to rapid changes in water quality and cyanobacterial abundance. We have applied and tested an online phycocyanin (PC) fluorescence probe for rapid monitoring of cyanobacteria in the Macau Storage Reservoir (MSR) that is experiencing cyanobacterial blooms. The relationships among cyanobacterial abundance, biovolume, cylindrospermopsin concentration, and PC fluorescence were analyzed using both laboratory and in-the-field studies. The performance of the probe was compared with traditional methods, and its advantages and limitations were assessed in pure and mixed cyanobacterial cultures in the laboratory. The proposed techniques successfully estimated the species including Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis, two toxic species recently observed in the MSR. During February–November, 2010, the PC probe detected high correlations between PC and cell numbers (R 2 = 0.71). Unlike the chl-a content, which indicates only the total algal biomass, the PC pigment specifically indicates cyanobacteria. These results support the PC parameter as a reliable estimate of cyanobacterial cell number, especially in freshwater bodies where the phytoplankton community and structure are stable. Thus, the PC probe is potentially applicable to online monitoring of cyanobacteria.
KeywordsPhycocyanin fluorescence probe Online measurement Cyanobacteria Freshwater reservoir
We thank the technical staff at Macao Water Co. Ltd. for collecting water samples, counting cyanobacterial cells and measuring chlorophyll-a concentration. Financial support from the Fundo para o Desenvolvimento das Ciências e da Tecnologia (FDCT) (grant # FDCT/016/2011/A) and Research Committee at University of Macau are gratefully acknowledged.
- APHA, 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st ed. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Cagnard, O., I. Baudin, I. Lemoigne & K. Cartnick, 2006. Assessment of emerging optic sensors (fluoroprobes) for algae on-line monitoring. American Water Works Association—Water Quality Technology Conference, Denver, CO, USA.Google Scholar
- Falconer, I., J. Bartram, I. Chorus, T. Kuiper-Goodman, H. Utkilen, M. Burch & G. A. Codd, 1999. Safe levels and safe practices. In Chorus, I. & J. Bartram (eds), Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water, A Guide to Their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management. Spon Press, London, UK: 161–182.Google Scholar
- Gregor, J. & B. Marsalek, 2005. A simple in vivo fluorescence method for the selective detection and quantification of freshwater cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica 33: 142–148.Google Scholar
- Izydorczyk, K., C. Carpentier, J. Mrówczyński, A. Wagenvoort, T. Jurczak & M. Tarczyńska, 2009. Establishment of an alert level framework for cyanobacteria in drinking water resources by using the algae online analyser for monitoring cyanobacterial chlorophyll a. Water Research 43: 989–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McAlice B. J., 1971. Phytoplankton sampling with Sedgwick-Rafter cell. Limnology and Oceanography 16: 19–28.Google Scholar
- Parésys, G., C. Rigart, B. Rousseau, A. W. M. Wong, F. Fan, J.-P. Barbier & J. Lavaud, 2005. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of phytoplankton communities by trichromatic chlorophyll fluorescence excitation with special focus on cyanobacteria. Water Research 39: 911–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO, 1998. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 2nd ed., Addendum to Vol. 2, Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information. World Health Organisation, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Zamyadi, A., 2011. PhD thesis. Ecole polytechnique de Montreal, University of Montreal.Google Scholar
- Zhang, W., I. Lou, W. K. Ung, Y. Kong & K. M. Mok, in press. Using quantitative real-time PCR to characterize spatial and temporal variations of cylindrospermopsin- and microcystin-producing genotypes, and cyanotoxins concentrations in Macau Storage Reservoir. Frontiers of Earth Science.Google Scholar