, Volume 719, Issue 1, pp 291–315 | Cite as

Riparian vegetation research in Mediterranean-climate regions: common patterns, ecological processes, and considerations for management

  • John C. Stella
  • Patricia M. Rodríguez-González
  • Simon Dufour
  • Jacob Bendix


Riparian corridors in Mediterranean-climate regions (med-regions) are resource-rich habitats within water-limited, larger landscapes. However, little is known about how their plant communities compare functionally and compositionally across med-regions. In recent decades, research on these ecosystems has expanded in both geographic scope and disciplinary depth. We reviewed 286 riparian-vegetation studies across the five med-regions, and identified common themes, including: (1) high levels of plant biodiversity, structural complexity, and cross-region species introductions; (2) strong physical controls on plant demographics and community structure; and (3) intensive human impacts. European and Californian ecosystems were the most represented among the studies reviewed, but Australia, South Africa, and Chile had the greatest proportional increases in articles published since 2000. All med-regions support distinct riparian flora, although many genera have invaded across regions. Plant species in all regions are adapted to multiple abiotic stressors, including dynamic flooding and sediment regimes, seasonal water shortage, and fire. The most severe human impacts are from land-use conversion to agriculture, streamflow regulation, nutrient enrichment, and climate change. Current knowledge gaps and subjects for future research include cumulative impacts to small, ephemeral streams and large, regulated rivers, as well as understudied ecosystems in North Africa, the western Mediterranean basin, and Chile.


Australia California Chile Mediterranean basin Riparian ecohydrology South Africa 



We thank J. Amigo Vázquez, M. Ater, and P Arsénio who provided valuable information about Chilean, North African, and South African riparian vegetation, respectively. The river channel migration image was provided by A. Fremier, and photographs were graciously contributed by B. Belletti, J. Kalwij, and R. L. Pettit. Funding was provided by CNRS/CNRST (S. Dufour), the CNRS PICS Program (S. Dufour and J.C. Stella), California’s Delta Science Program (J.C. Stella) and a post-doctoral grant from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology-FCT (SFRH/BPD/47140/2008, P. M. Rodríguez-González). Some of this research was conducted while J. Bendix was a visiting research fellow at the University of Macau.

Supplementary material

10750_2012_1304_MOESM1_ESM.doc (288 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 288 kb)


  1. Abelho, M. & M. A. S. Graça, 1996. Effects of Eucalyptus afforestation on leaf litter dynamics and macroinvertebrate community structure of streams in central Portugal. Hydrobiologia 324: 195–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguiar, F. C. & M. T. Ferreira, 2005. Human-disturbed landscapes: effects on composition and integrity of riparian woody vegetation in the Tagus River basin, Portugal. Environmental Conservation 32: 30–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguiar, F. C., M. T. Ferreira & A. Albuquerque, 2006. Patterns of exotic and native plant species richness and cover along a semi-arid Iberian river and across its floodplain. Plant Ecology 184: 189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aguiar, F. C., M. T. Ferreira, A. Albuquerque, P. M. Rodríguez-González & P. Segurado, 2009. Structural and functional responses of riparian vegetation to human disturbance: performance and spatial scale dependence. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 175: 249–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akeroyd, M. D., S. D. Tyerman, G. R. Walker & I. D. Jolly, 1998. Impact of flooding on the water use of semi-arid riparian eucalypts. Journal of Hydrology 206: 104–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alpert, P., E. Bone & C. Holzapfel, 2000. Invasiveness, invasibility and the role of environmental stress in the spread of non-native plants. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 3(1): 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amigo, J., 2005. Las saucedas riparias de Salicion salviifoliae en Galicia (Noroeste de España). Lazaroa 26: 67–81.Google Scholar
  8. Amlin, N. M. & S. B. Rood, 2002. Comparative tolerances of riparian willows and cottonwoods to water-table decline. Wetlands 22: 338–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Angiolini, C., A. Nucci, F. Frignani & M. Landi, 2011. Using multivariate analyses to assess effects of fluvial type on plant species distribution in a Mediterranean river. Wetlands 31: 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Archiloque, A., L. Borel & J. P. Devaux, 1963. Installation de biotopes nouveaux dans le lit de la Durance. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Marseille 12: 21–34.Google Scholar
  11. Aschmann, H., 1973. Man’s impact on the several regions with Mediterranean climates. In di Castri, F. & H. A. Mooney (eds), Mediterranean type ecosystems—origins and structure. Springer, Berlin: 363–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baker, W. L. & G. M. Walford, 1995. Multiple stable states and models of riparian vegetation succession on the Animas River, Colorado. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85: 320–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ballero, M., 1988. The riparian flora in the Rio Cannas basin, southeast Sardinia [La flora presente lungo i corsi d’acqua del bacino idrografico del Rio Cannas (Sardegna sud-orientale)]. Webbia 42: 269–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barbour, M., B. Pavlik, F. Drysdale & S. Lindstrom, 1993. California’s changing landscapes: diversity and conservation of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.Google Scholar
  15. Bärlocher, F. & M. A. S. Graça, 2002. Exotic riparian vegetation lowers fungal diversity but not leaf decomposition in Portuguese streams. Freshwater Biology 47: 1123–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beater, M. M. T., R. D. Garner & E. T. F. Witkowski, 2008. Impacts of clearing invasive alien plants from 1995 to 2005 on vegetation structure, invasion intensity and ground cover in a temperate to subtropical riparian ecosystem. South African Journal of Botany 74: 495–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bejarano, M. D., M. González del Tánago, D. García de Jalon, M. Marchamalo, A. Sordo-Ward & J. Solana-Gutiérrez, 2011. Responses of riparian guilds to flow alterations in a Mediterranean stream. Journal of Vegetation Science 23: 443–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bendix, J., 1998. Impact of a flood on southern California riparian vegetation. Physical Geography 19: 162–174.Google Scholar
  19. Bendix, J., 1999. Stream power influence on southern Californian riparian vegetation. Journal of Vegetation Science 10: 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bendix, J. & C. M. Cowell, 2010a. Fire, floods and woody debris: interactions between biotic and geomorphic processes. Geomorphology 116: 297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bendix, J. & C. M. Cowell, 2010b. Impacts of wildfire on the composition and structure of riparian forests in Southern California. Ecosystems 13: 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bendix, J. & C. R. Hupp, 2000. Hydrological and geomorphological impacts on riparian plant communities. Hydrological Processes 14: 2977–2990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bendix, J., & J. C. Stella, in press. Riparian vegetation and the fluvial environment: a biogeographic perspective. In Shroder, J. Jr., D. R. Butler & C. R. Hupp (eds), Ecogeomorphology: Treatise on Geomorphology, Vol. 12. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  24. Benjankar, R., G. Egger, K. Jorde, P. Goodwin & N. F. Glenn, 2011. Dynamic floodplain vegetation model development for the Kootenai River, USA. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 3058–3070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bertoldi, W., A. M. Gurnell, N. Surian, K. Tockner, L. Zanoni, L. Ziliani & G. Zolezzi, 2009. Understanding reference processes: linkages between river flows, sediment dynamics and vegetated landforms along the Tagliamento River, Italy. River Research and Applications 25: 501–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bertoldi, W., A. M. Gurnell & N. A. Drake, 2011. The topographic signature of vegetation development along a braided river: results of a combined analysis of airborne lidar, color air photographs, and ground measurements. Water Resources Research 47(6): W06525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bombino, G., A. M. Gurnell, V. Tamburino, D. A. Zema & S. M. Zimbone, 2007. A method for assessing channelization effects on riparian vegetation in a Mediterranean environment. River Research and Applications 23: 613–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bombino, G., A. M. Gurnell, V. Tamburino, D. A. Zema & S. M. Zimbone, 2008. Sediment size variation in torrents with check dams: effects on riparian vegetation. Ecological Engineering 32: 166–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bond, W. J. & J. J. Midgley, 2001. Ecology of sprouting in woody plants: the persistence niche. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16: 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bravard, J. P., C. Amoros, G. Pautou, G. Bornette, M. Bournaud, M. Creuzé des Châtelliers, J. Gibert, J. L. Peiry, J. F. Perrin & H. Tachet, 1997. Stream incision in Southeast France: morphological phenomena and impacts upon biocenoses. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 13: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Brierley, G. J. & K. A. Fryirs, 2005. Geomorphology and river management: application of the river styles framework. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA.Google Scholar
  32. Brullo, S. & G. Spampinato, 1997. Phytosociological investigation on the riparian forests from Calabria (S Italy) [Indagine fitosociologica sulle ripisilve della Calabria (Italia meridionale)]. Lazaroa 18: 105–151.Google Scholar
  33. Brunel, S. & J.-M. Tisson, 2005. A method of selection and hierarchization of the invasive and potentially invasive plants in continental Mediterranean France. In Brunel, S. (ed.), Invasive plants in Mediterranean type regions of the world. Proceedings of the international workshop, Meze, France. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg: 34–42.Google Scholar
  34. Busch, D. E. & S. D. Smith, 1995. Mechanisms associated with decline of woody species in riparian ecosystems of the southwestern U.S. Ecological Monographs 65: 347–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Callow, J. N. & K. R. J. Smettem, 2007. Channel response to a new hydrological regime in southwestern Australia. Geomorphology 84: 254–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carone, M. T., T. Simoniello, R. Coppola, M. D’Emilio, M. Lanfredi, M. Proto, M. L. Carranza, A. Loy & M. Macchiato, 2010. Analysis of landscape structure and connectivity at watershed scale. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 19: 2361–2366.Google Scholar
  37. Chatzinikolaou, Y., K. Ntemiri & S. Zogaris, 2011. River riparian zone assessment using a rapid site-based index in Greece. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 20: 296–302.Google Scholar
  38. Christian-Smith, J. & A. M. Merenlender, 2010. The disconnect between restoration goals and practices: a case study of watershed restoration in the Russian River basin, California. Restoration Ecology 18: 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Coffman, G. C., R. F. Ambrose & P. W. Rundel, 2010. Wildfire promotes dominance of invasive giant reed (Arundo donax) in riparian ecosystems. Biological Invasions 12: 2723–2734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Corenblit, D., J. Steiger & E. Tabacchi, 2010. Biogeomorphic succession dynamics in a Mediterranean river system. Ecography 33: 1136–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Corenblit, D., A. C. W. Baas, G. Bornette, J. Darrozes, S. Delmotte, R. A. Francis, A. M. Gurnell, F. Julien, R. J. Naiman & J. Steiger, 2011. Feedbacks between geomorphology and biota controlling earth surface processes and landforms: a review of foundation concepts and current understandings. Earth-Science Reviews 106: 307–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Costa, J. C., M. Lousã & A. P. O. Pães, 1996. As comunidades ribeirinhas da bacia hidrográfica do rio Sado (Alentejo, Portugal). Proceedings I Colóquio Internacional de Ecologia de Vegetação. Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade de Évora. Évora, Portugal: 291–320.Google Scholar
  43. Cottet, M., A. Rivière-Honegger & H. Piégay, 2010. Mieux comprendre la perception des paysages de bras morts en vue d’une restauration écologique: quels sont les liens entre les qualités esthétique et écologique perçues par les acteurs? Norois 216: 85–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cowling, R. M. & B. M. Campbell, 1980. Convergence in vegetation structure in the Mediterranean communities of California, Chile and South Africa. Vegetatio 43: 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cushman, J. H. & K. A. Gaffney, 2010. Community-level consequences of invasion: impacts of exotic clonal plants on riparian vegetation. Biological Invasions 12: 2765–2776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. da Silva, P. M., C. A. S. Aguiar, I. D. F. E. Silva & A. R. M. Serrano, 2011. Orchard and riparian habitats enhance ground dwelling beetle diversity in Mediterranean agro-forestry systems. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 861–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Davies, J. N. & A. J. Boulton, 2009. Great house, poor food: effects of exotic leaf litter on shredder densities and caddisfly growth in 6 subtropical Australian streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 28: 491–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Davies, N. M., R. H. Norris & M. C. Thoms, 2000. Prediction and assessment of local stream habitat features using large-scale catchment characteristics. Freshwater Biology 45: 343–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Davis, F. W., E. A. Keller, A. Parikh & J. Florsheim, 1989. Recovery of the Chaparral Riparian Zone After wildfire. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-110: 194–203.Google Scholar
  50. Davis, M. A., J. P. Grime & K. Thompson, 2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. Journal of Ecology 88: 528–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Di Tomaso, J. M., 1998. Impact, biology, and ecology of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the southwestern United States. Weed Technology 12(2): 326–336.Google Scholar
  52. Díaz, T. E. & A. Penas, 1987. Estudio de las saucedas mediterráneas de la Provincia de León. In del Arco M. J. & W. Wildpret (eds), Vegetación de riberas de agua dulce II—proceedings V Jornadas de Fitosociología. Serie Informes 22. Secretariado de Publicaciones. Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna: 87–120.Google Scholar
  53. Dimitriou, E. & I. Zacharias, 2010. Identifying microclimatic, hydrologic and land use impacts on a protected wetland area by using statistical models and GIS techniques. Mathematical and Computer Modelling 51: 200–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Douhovnikoff, V., J. R. McBride & R. S. Dodd, 2005. Salix exigua clonal growth and population dynamics in relation to disturbance regime variation. Ecology 86: 446–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Downs, P. W., M. S. Singer, B. K. Orr, Z. E. Diggory, T. C. Church & J. C. Stella, 2011. Restoring ecological integrity in highly regulated rivers: the role of baseline data and analytical references. Environmental Management 48: 847–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Duarte, M. C., I. Moreira & T. Ferreira, 2004. Flora de ecossistemas aquáticos e ribeirinhos portugueses: delimitação taxonómica, tipológica e espacial. Recursos Hídricos 25(1): 67–94.Google Scholar
  57. Dufour, S. & H. Piégay, 2008. Geomorphological controls of Fraxinus excelsior growth and regeneration in floodplain forests. Ecology 89: 205–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dufour, S. & H. Piégay, 2009. From the myth of a lost paradise to targeted river restoration: forget natural references and focus on human benefits. River Research and Applications 25: 568–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dufour, S., E. Muller, M. Straastma & S. Corgne, 2012. Image utilisation for the study and management of riparian vegetation: overview and applications. In Piégay, H. & P. Carbonneau (eds), Imagery and river management: recent advances and challenging issues. Wiley, Chichester: 215–239.Google Scholar
  60. Dufour, S., N. Barsoum, E. Muller & H. Piégay, 2007. Effects of channel confinement on pioneer woody plant community structure, composition and diversity along the River Drôme (SE, France). Earth Surfaces Processes and Landforms 32: 1244–1256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dufour, S., A. J. Rollet, J. Oszwald & X. Arnauld de Sartre, 2011. Ecosystem Services, an Opportunity for Improving Restoration Practices in River Systems and Riparian Areas? Unpublished research note (02/2012) [available at].
  62. Dunford, R., K. Michel, M. Gagnage, H. Piégay & M. L. Trémélo, 2009. Potential and constraints of UAV technology for the characterisation of Mediterranean riparian forest. International Journal of Remote Sensing 30: 4915–4935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Espirito-Santo, D., P. Arsénio, P. Bingre, M. Silveira & I. Moreira, 2000. Conservation and restoration of riparian vegetation in South Portugal. Aspects of Applied Biology 58: 241–248.Google Scholar
  64. Fernández González, F. & A. Molina, 1988. Datos fitosociológicos sobre las fresnedas guadarrámicas. Acta Botanica Malacitana 13: 217–228.Google Scholar
  65. Fernández, L., J. Rau & A. Arriagada, 2009. Calidad de la vegetación ribereña del rio Maullín (41º28′S; 72º59′O) utilizando el índice QBR. Gayana Botánica 66: 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fernandes, M. R., F. C. Aguiar & M. T. Ferreira, 2010. Assessing riparian vegetation structure and the influence of land use using landscape metrics and geostatistical tools. Landscape and Urban Planning 99: 166–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ferreira, M. T., P. M. Rodríguez-González, F. C. Aguiar & A. Albuquerque, 2005a. Assessing biotic integrity in Iberian rivers: development of a multimetric plant index. Ecological Indicators 5: 137–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ferreira, M. T., F. C. Aguiar & C. Nogueira, 2005b. Changes in riparian woods over space and time: influence of environment and land use. Forest Ecology and Management 212: 145–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Forsyth, G. G., D. M. Richardson, P. J. Brown & B. W. Van Wilgen, 2004. A rapid assessment of the invasive status of Eucalyptus species in two South African provinces. South African Journal of Science 100: 75–77.Google Scholar
  70. Forzieri, G., G. Moser, E. R. Vivoni, F. Castelli & F. Canovaro, 2010. Riparian vegetation mapping for hydraulic roughness estimation using very high resolution remote sensing data fusion. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 136: 855–867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Fox, M. D., 1990. Mediterranean weeds: exchanges of invasive plants between the five Mediterranean regions of the world. In Di Castri, F., A. J. Hansen & M. Debussch (eds), Biological invasions in Europe. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 179–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Francis, R. A. & A. M. Gurnell, 2006. Initial establishment of vegetative fragments within the active zone of a braided gravel-bed River (River Tagliamento, NE Italy). Wetlands 26: 641–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. García-Arias, A., F. Francés, F. Ferreira, G. Egger, F. Martínez-Capel, V. Garófano-Gómez, I. Andrés-Doménech, E. Politti, R. Rivaes & P. M. Rodríguez-González, in press. Implementing a dynamic riparian vegetation model in three European river systems. Ecohydrology.Google Scholar
  74. García Fuentes, A., J. A. Torres, C. Pinto Gomes, A. Leite, C. Salazar & M. Melendo, 1998. Fresnedas del sur y occidente de la Península Ibérica. Itinera Geobotanica 11: 299–314.Google Scholar
  75. Gaudis-Montbrun, B., 1985. La végétation riveraine de la basse vallée de la Durance. Bulletin de la Société Linnéenne de Provence 37: 79–99.Google Scholar
  76. Giorgi, F. & P. Lionello, 2008. Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region. Global and Planetary Change 63: 90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Girvetz, E. H. & S. E. Greco, 2009. Multi-scale predictive habitat suitability modeling based on hierarchically delineated patches: an example for yellow-billed cuckoos nesting in riparian forests, California, USA. Landscape Ecology 24: 1315–1329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. González del Tánago, M. & D. D. García de Jalón, 2006. Attributes for assessing the environmental quality of riparian zones. Limnetica 25: 389–402.Google Scholar
  79. González, E., M. González-Sanchís, A. Cabezas, F. A. Comín & E. Muller, 2010. Recent changes in the riparian forest of a large regulated Mediterranean river: implications for management. Environmental Management 45: 669–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gran, K. & C. Paola, 2001. Riparian vegetation controls on braided stream dynamics. Water Resources Research 37: 3275–3283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Gurnell, A. M., A. J. Boitsidis, K. Thompson & N. J. Clifford, 2006. Seed bank, seed dispersal and vegetation cover: colonization along a newly-created river channel. Journal of Vegetation Science 17: 665–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Gurnell, A. M., G. E. Petts, D. M. Hannah, B. P. G. Smith, P. J. Edwards, J. Kollmann, J. V. Ward & K. Tockner, 2000a. Wood storage within the active zone of a large European gravel-bed river. Geomorphology 34: 55–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Gurnell, A. M., G. E. Petts, N. Harris, J. V. Ward, K. Tockner, P. J. Edwards & J. Kollmann, 2000b. Large wood retention in river channels: the case of the Fiume Tagliamento, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25: 255–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gurnell, A. M. & G. E. Petts, 2006. Trees as riparian engineers: the Tagliamento River, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31: 1558–1574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gutiérrez, C., A. Salvat, & F. Sabater, 2001. Índex per l’avaluació de la qualitat del medi fluvial a partir de la vegetació de ribera, Índex IVF. Documents tècnics de l’Agència Catalana de l’Aigua. Departament de Medi Ambient de la Generalitat de Catalunya.Google Scholar
  86. Halse, S. A., M. D. Scanlon, J. S. Cocking, M. J. Smith & W. R. Kay, 2007. Factors affecting river health and its assessment over broad geographic ranges: the Western Australian experience. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 134: 161–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hamada, Y., D. A. Stow, L. L. Coulter, J. C. Jafolla & L. W. Hendricks, 2007. Detecting Tamarisk species (Tamarix spp.) in riparian habitats of Southern California using high spatial resolution hyperspectral imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment 109: 237–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Harper, E. B., J. C. Stella & A. K. Fremier, 2011. Global sensitivity analysis for complex ecological models: a case study of riparian cottonwood population dynamics. Ecological Applications 21: 1225–1240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Haury, J., M. C. Peltre, M. Tremoliéres, J. Barbe, G. Thiébaut, I. Bernez, H. Daniel, P. Chatenet, G. Haan-Archipof, S. Muller, A. Dutartre, C. Laplace-Treyture, A. Cazaubon & E. Lambert-Servien, 2006. A new method to assess water trophy and organic pollution—the macrophyte biological index for rivers (IBMR): its application to different types of river and pollution. Hydrobiologia 1: 153–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hervouet, A., R. Dunford, H. Piégay, B. Belletti & M. L. Tremelo, 2011. Analysis of post-flood recruitment patterns in braided Channel Rivers at multiple scales based on an image series collected by unmanned aerial vehicles, ultra-light aerial vehicles, and satellites. GIScience & Remote Sensing 1: 50–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Holmes, N. T. H., J. R. Newman, F. H. Dawson, S. Chadd, K. J. Rouen & L. Sharp, 1999. Mean trophic rank: a user’s manual. R&D Technical Report. Environment Agency, Bristol.Google Scholar
  92. Horton, J. L. & J. L. Clark, 2001. Water table decline alters growth and survival of Salix gooddingii and Tamarix chinensis seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 140: 239–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hruska, K., A. Dell’Uomo, L. Staffolani & M. Torrisi, 2008. Influence of urbanization on riparian and algal species composition in two rivers of central Italy. Ecoscience 15: 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hubble, T. C. T., B. B. Docker & I. D. Rutherfurd, 2010. The role of riparian trees in maintaining riverbank stability: a review of Australian experience and practice. Ecological Engineering 36: 292–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hughes, F. M. R., 1997. Floodplain biogeomorphology. Progress in Physical Geography 21: 501–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hughes, F. M. R. & S. B. Rood, 2003. Allocation of river flows for restoration of floodplain forest ecosystems: a review of approaches and their applicability in Europe. Environmental Management 32: 12–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hupp, C. R. & M. Rinaldi, 2007. Riparian vegetation patterns in relation to fluvial landforms and channel evolution along selected rivers of Tuscany (Central Italy). Annals of the Association of American Geographers 97: 12–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Imbert, E. & F. Lefevre, 2003. Dispersal and gene flow of Populus nigra (Salicaceae) along a dynamic river system. Journal of Ecology 91: 447–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ivits, E., M. Cherlet, W. Mehl & S. Sommer, 2009. Estimating the ecological status and change of riparian zones in Andalusia assessed by multi-temporal AVHHR datasets. Ecological Indicators 9: 422–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Johansen, K., L. A. Arroyo, J. Armston, S. Phinn & C. Witte, 2010. Mapping riparian condition indicators in a sub-tropical savanna environment from discrete return LiDAR data using object-based image analysis. Ecological Indicators 10: 796–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Karr, J. R., 1991. Biological integrity: a long-neglected aspect of water resource management. Ecological Applications 1: 66–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Karrenberg, S., P. J. Edwards & J. Kollmann, 2002. The life history of Salicaceae living in the active zone of floodplains. Freshwater Biology 47: 733–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Katibah, E. F., K. J. Dummer & N. E. Nedeff, 1984. Current condition of riparian resources in the central valley of California. In Hendrix, R. E. W. K. M. (ed.), California Riparian Systems: Ecology, Conservation, and Productive Management. University of California Press, Berkeley: 314–321.Google Scholar
  104. Keeley, J. E., C. J. Fotheringham & M. Morais, 1999. Reexamining fire suppression impacts on brushland fire regimes. Science 284: 1829–1832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Keller, E. A. & T. Tally, 1982. Effects of large organic debris on channel form and fluvial processes in the coastal redwood environment (California). In Rhodes, D. D. & G. P. Williams (eds), Adjustments of the Fluvial System. Proceedings of the 10th Geomorphology Symposium. State University of New York, Binghamton: 169–197.Google Scholar
  106. Kladis, G., M. Panitsa, I. Tsiripidis, D. Sarris & P. Dimopoulos, 2011. Vegetation ecology and diversity relationships in a riparian forest remnant of Western Greece. Journal of Biological Research 16: 237–254.Google Scholar
  107. Klausmeyer, K. R. & M. R. Shaw, 2009. Climate change, habitat loss, protected areas and the climate adaptation potential of species in Mediterranean ecosystems worldwide. PLoS ONE 4(7): 1–9 (e6392).Google Scholar
  108. Kobziar, L. N. & J. R. McBride, 2006. Wildfire burn patterns and riparian vegetation response along two northern Sierra Nevada streams. Forest Ecology and Management 222: 254–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kondolf, M. G., H. Piégay & N. Landon, 2007. Changes in the riparian zone of the lower Eygues River, France, since 1830. Landscape Ecology 22: 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kranjcec, J., J. M. Mahoney & S. B. Rood, 1998. The responses of three riparian cottonwood species to water table decline. Forest Ecology and Management 110: 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Laćan, I., V. H. Resh & J. R. Mcbride, 2010. Similar breakdown rates and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages on native and Eucalyptus globulus leaf litter in Californian streams. Freshwater Biology 55: 739–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Leal, A. I., R. C. Martins, J. M. Palmeirim & J. P. Granadeiro, 2011. Influence of habitat fragments on bird assemblages in Cork Oak woodlands. Bird Study 58: 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Leffler, A. J. & A. S. Evans, 1999. Variation in carbon isotope composition among years in the riparian tree Populus fremontii. Oecologia 119: 311–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Leffler, A. J. & A. S. Evans, 2001. Physiological variation among Populus fremontii populations: short-and long-term relationships between δ13C and water availability. Tree Physiology 21: 1149–1155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Levine, C. M. & J. C. Stromberg, 2001. Effects of flooding on native and exotic plant seedlings: implications for restoring south-western riparian forests by manipulating water and sediment flows. Journal of Arid Environments 49: 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lewis, D. B., T. K. Harms, J. D. Schade & N. B. Grimm, 2009. Biogeochemical function and heterogeneity in arid-region riparian zones. In Stromberg, J. C. & B. Tellman (eds), Ecology and Conservation of the San Pedro River. University of Arizona Press, Tucson: 323–341.Google Scholar
  117. Liébault, F. & H. Piégay, 2002. Causes of 20th century channel narrowing in mountain and Piedmont Rivers and streams of Southeastern France. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 27: 425–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lytle, D. A. & N. L. Poff, 2004. Adaptation to natural flow regimes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19: 94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Madejón, P., T. Marañón, J. M. Murillo & B. Robinson, 2004. White poplar (Populus alba) as a biomonitor of trace elements in contaminated riparian forests. Environmental Pollution 132: 145–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Magdaleno, F., R. Martínez & V. Roch, 2010. Índice RFV para la valoración del estado del bosque de ribera. Ingenieria civil 157: 85–96.Google Scholar
  121. Malkinson, D. & L. Wittenberg, 2007. Scaling the effects of riparian vegetation on cross-sectional characteristics of ephemeral mountain streams-a case study of Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Catena 69: 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Manzi, A., 1988. Relitto di bosca ripariale lungo il corso planiziare del fiume Sangro (Italia centrale). Documents phytosociologiques 11: 561–571.Google Scholar
  123. Marais, C. & A. M. Wannenburgh, 2008. Restoration of water resources (natural capital) through the clearing of invasive alien plants from riparian areas in South Africa—Costs and water benefits. South African Journal of Botany 74: 526–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Maruani, T. & I. Amit-Cohen, 2009. The effectiveness of the protection of riparian landscapes in Israel. Land Use Policy 26: 911–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Matos, H. M., M. J. Santos, F. Palomares & M. Santos-Reis, 2009. Does riparian habitat condition influence mammalian carnivore abundance in Mediterranean ecosystems? Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 373–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. McBride, J. R. & J. Strahan, 1984. Establishment and survival of woody riparian species on gravel bars of an intermittent stream. American Midland Naturalist 112: 235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Médail, F. & K. Diadema, 2009. Glacial refugia influence plant diversity patterns in the Mediterranean basin. Journal of Biogeography 36: 1333–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Meek, C. S., D. M. Richardson & L. Mucina, 2010. A river runs through it: land-use and the composition of vegetation along a riparian corridor in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Biological Conservation 143: 156–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Michalkova, M., H. Piégay, G. M. Kondolf & S. Greco, 2010. Longitudinal and temporal evolution of the Sacramento River between Red Bluff and Colusa, California (1942–1999). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 36: 257–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mortenson, S. G. & P. J. Weisberg, 2010. Does river regulation increase the dominance of invasive woody species in riparian landscapes? Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 562–574.Google Scholar
  131. Munné, A. & N. Prat, 2004. Defining river types in a Mediterranean area: a methodology for the implementation of the EU water framework directive. Environmental Management 34: 711–729.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Munné, A., N. Prat, C. Solà, N. Bonada & M. Rieradevall, 2003. A simple field protocol for assessing the ecological quality of riparian in rivers and streams: qBR index. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13: 147–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Naiman, R. J., H. Décamps & M. E. Mcclain, 2005. Riparia: Ecology, Conservation, and Management of Streamside Communities. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  134. Navarro-Llácer, C., D. Baeza & J. de las Heras, 2010. Assessment of regulated rivers with indices based on macroinvertebrates, fish and riparian forest in the southeast of Spain. Ecological Indicators 10: 935–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nel, J. L., D. M. Richardson, M. Rouget, T. N. Mgidi, N. Mdzeke, D. C. Le Maitre, B. W. van Wilgen, L. Schonegevel, L. Henderson & S. Neser, 2004. A proposed classification of invasive alien plant species in South Africa: towards prioritizing species and areas for management action. South African Journal of Science 100(1): 53–64.Google Scholar
  136. Nilsson, C., R. L. Brownn, R. Jansson & D. M. Merritt, 2010. The role of hydrochory in structuring riparian and wetland vegetation. Biological Reviews 85(4): 1–24.Google Scholar
  137. Norris, R. H. & C. P. Hawkins, 2000. Monitoring river health. Hydrobiologia 435: 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Olson, D. M., E. Dinerstein, E. D. Wikramanayake, N. D. Burgess, G. V. N. Powell, E. C. Underwood, J. A. D’amico, I. Itoua, H. E. Strand, J. C. Morrison, C. J. Loucks, T. F. Allnutt, T. H. Ricketts, Y. Kura, J. F. Lamoreux, W. W. Wettengel, P. Hedao & K. R. Kassem, 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. BioScience 51: 933–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Opperman, J. J., 2005. Large woody debris and land management in California’s hardwood-dominated watersheds. Environmental Management 35: 266–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Palma, A., R. Figueroa & V. H. Ruiz, 2009. Evaluación de ribera y hábitat fluvial a través de los índices QBR e IHF. Gayana 73: 57–63.Google Scholar
  141. Palmer, M. A. L., D. P. Lettenmaier, N. L. Poff, S. L. Postel, B. Richter & R. Warner, 2009. Climate change and river ecosystems: protection and adaptation options. Environmental Management 44: 1053–1068.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Palmer, M. A., H. L. Menninger & E. Bernhardt, 2010. River restoration, habitat heterogeneity and biodiversity: a failure of theory or practice? Freshwater Biology 55: 205–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Parry, M. L., O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof & Co-authors, 2007. Technical summary. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In Parry, M. L., O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden & C. E. Hanson (eds), Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 23–78.Google Scholar
  144. Parsons, M., M. C. Thoms & R. H. Norris, 2004. Development of a standardized approach to river habitat assessment in Australia. Environmental Management and Assessment 98: 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Patten, D. T., 1998. Riparian ecosystems of semi-arid North America: diversity and human impacts. Wetlands 18: 498–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Perry, L. G., D. C. Andersen, L. V. Reynolds, S. M. Nelson & P. B. Shafroth, 2012. Vulnerability of riparian ecosystems to elevated CO2 and climate change in arid and semiarid western North America. Global Change Biology 18: 821–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Petersen, R. C., 1992. The RCE: a riparian, channel, and environmental inventory for small streams in the agricultural landscape. Freshwater Biology 27: 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Peterson, D. H. S., R. E. Smith, M. D. Dettinger, D. R. Cayan & L. Riddle, 2000. An organized signal in snowmelt runoff over the western United States. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 36: 421–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Pettit, N. E. & R. H. Froend, 2001. Variability in flood disturbance and the impact on riparian tree recruitment in two contrasting river systems. Wetlands Ecology and Management 9: 13–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Pettit, N. E., R. H. Froend & P. M. Davies, 2001. Identifying the natural flow regime and the relationship with riparian vegetation for two contrasting western Australian Rivers. Regulated Rivers 17: 201–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Piégay, H., 1996. Quelques modes de représentation infocartographique de la biodynamique fluviale: analyse diachronique et synchronique de la forêt alluviale de la moyenne Ardèche. Mappemonde 3: 15–22.Google Scholar
  152. Piégay, H. & J. P. Bravard, 1997. The reactions of a Mediterranean riparian forest to a major hydrological event, the 1 in 400 year flood (22.09.1992) in the Ouvèze river, Drôme-Vaucluse, France. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 22: 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Piégay, H. G., K. J. Gregory, V. Bondarev, A. Chin, N. Dahlstrom, A. Elosegi, S. V. Gregory, V. Joshi, M. Mutz, M. Rinaldi, B. Wyzga & J. Zawiejska, 2005. Public perception as a barrier to introducing wood in rivers for restoration purposes. Environmental Management 36: 665–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Piégay, H., A. Alber, L. Slater & L. Bourdin, 2009. Census and typology of the braided rivers in the French Alps. Aquatic Sciences 71: 371–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Piégay, H., D. E. Walling, N. Landon, Q. He, F. Liébault & R. Petiot, 2004. Contemporary changes in sediment yield in an alpine mountain basin due to afforestation (the upper Drôme in France). Catena 55: 83–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Planty-Tabacchi, A.-M. T., E. Tabacchi, R. J. Naiman, C. Deferrari & H. Decamps, 1996. Invasibility of species rich communities in riparian zones. Conservation Biology 10: 598–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Poesen, J. W. A. & J. M. Hooke, 1997. Erosion, flooding and channel management in Mediterranean environments of southern Europe. Progress in Physical Geography 21: 157–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Poff, N. L., J. D. Allan, M. B. Bain, J. R. Karr, K. L. Prestegaard, B. D. Richter, R. E. Sparks & J. C. Stromberg, 1997. The natural flow regime: a paradigm for river conservation and restoration. BioScience 47: 769–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Polzin, M. L. & S. B. Rood, 2006. Effective disturbance: seedling safe sites and patch recruitment of riparian cottonwoods after a major flood of a mountain river. Wetlands 26: 965–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Pont, D., B. Hugueny, U. Beier, D. Goffaux, A. Melcher, R. Noble, C. Rogers, N. Roset & S. Schmutz, 2006. Assessing river biotic condition at a continental scale: a European approach using functional metrics and fish assemblages. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 70–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Pretorius, M. R., K. J. Esler, P. M. Holmes & N. Prins, 2008. The effectiveness of active restoration following alien clearance in fynbos riparian zones and resilience of treatments to fire. South African Journal of Botany 74: 517–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Quesada, J., F. Valle & C. Salazar, 2009. El paisaje vegetal ripario del río Guadalentín (Jaén-Granada, sureste de España): bases para la gestión y la conservación del medio natural. Lazaroa 30: 119–132.Google Scholar
  163. Quézel, P. & F. Médail, 2003. Ecologie et biogéographie des forêts du bassin méditerranéen. Elsevier (Collection Environnement), Paris.Google Scholar
  164. Quinn, L. D. & J. S. Holt, 2008. Ecological correlates of invasion by Arundo donax in three southern California riparian habitats. Biological Invasions 10: 591–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Reinecke, M. K., A. L. Pigot & J. M. King, 2008. Spontaneous succession of riparian fynbos: is unassisted recovery a viable restoration strategy? South African Journal of Botany 74: 412–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Richardson, D. M., R. M. Rouget, D. C. Le Maitre, T. N. Mgidi & J. L. Nel, 2004. Setting priorities for invasive alien plant management in South Africa. In Brunel, S. (ed.), Invasive Plants in Mediterranean Type Regions of the World. Proceedings of the International Workshop, Meze, France. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg: 21–27.Google Scholar
  167. Rivaes, R., P. M. Rodríguez-González, A. Albuquerque, M. T. Ferreira & A. Pinheiro, 2011. Uma nova ferramenta de restauro: aplicaçao de um modelo preditivo da evoluçao da vegetaçao ripícola em funçao das alteraçoes hidrológicas. Recursos Hídricos 32: 29–41.Google Scholar
  168. Rivaes R., P. M. Rodríguez-González, A. Albuquerque, A. Pinheiro, G. Egger & M. T. Ferreira, 2012. Riparian vegetation responses to altered flow regimes driven by climate change in Mediterranean rivers. Ecohydrology. doi:10.1002/eco.1287.
  169. Rodríguez-González, P. M., S. Serrazina, E. Buscardo, J. H. Capelo & D. Espirito Santo, 2003a. Contribution for the taxonomical study of Salix (Salicaceae) in the Portuguese Mediterranean Region. Bocconea 16: 691–696.Google Scholar
  170. Rodríguez-González, P. M., M. T. Ferreira & D. Espirito Santo, 2003b. Aplicação de um índice multimétrico para avaliação da qualidade ecológica de habitats e de galerias ribeirinhos. Recursos hídricos 24: 80–88.Google Scholar
  171. Rodríguez-González, P. M., J. C. Stella, F. Campelo, M. T. Ferreira & A. Albuquerque, 2010. Subsidy or stress? Tree structure and growth in wetland forests along a hydrological gradient in Southern Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 2015–2025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Rominger, J. T., A. F. Lightbody & H. M. Nepf, 2010. Effects of added vegetation on sand bar stability and stream hydrodynamics. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 136: 994–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Rood, S. B., S. Patiño, K. Coombs & M. T. Tyree, 2000. Branch sacrifice: cavitation-associated drought adaptation of riparian cottonwoods. Trees-Structure and Function 14: 248–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Rood, S. B. S., G. M. Samuelson, J. H. Braatne, C. R. Gourley, F. M. R. Hughes & J. M. Mahoney, 2005. Managing river flows to restore floodplain forests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3: 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Rufo, L., N. Rodríguez & V. de la Fuente, 2011. Plant communities of extreme acidic waters: the Rio Tinto case. Aquatic Botany 91: 2–129.Google Scholar
  176. Salinas, M. J., G. Blanca & A. T. Romero, 2000. Riparian vegetation and water chemistry in a basin under semiarid Mediterranean climate, Andarax River, Spain. Environmental Management 26: 539–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Sampaio, A., P. M. Rodríguez-González, S. V. Oliveira, R. M. Cortes & M. T. Ferreira, 2008. Leaf litter decomposition in western Iberian forested wetlands: lentic versus lotic response. Limnetica 27(1): 96–106.Google Scholar
  178. Sánchez-Montoya, M. M., M. R. Vidal-Abarca, T. Puntí, J. M. Poquet, N. Prat, M. Rieradevall, J. Alba-Tercedor, C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Toro, S. Robles, M. Álvarez & M. L. Suárez, 2009. Defining criteria to select reference sites in Mediterranean streams. Hydrobiologia 619: 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Santos, M. J., 2010. Encroachment of upland Mediterranean plant species in riparian ecosystems of southern Portugal. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 2667–2684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Santos, M. J., H. M. Matos, F. Palomares & M. Santos-Reis, 2010. Factors affecting mammalian carnivore use of riparian ecosystems in Mediterranean climates. Journal of Mammalogy 92: 1060–1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Schifman, L. A., J. C. Stella, T. A. Volk & M. A. Teece, 2012. Carbon isotope variation in shrub willow (Salix spp.) ring-wood as an indicator of long-term water status, growth and survival. Biomass and Bioenergy 36: 316–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Schlaepfer, M. A., D. F. Sax & J. D. Olden, 2011. The potential conservation value of non-native species. Conservation Biology 25: 428–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Scott, M. L., P. B. Shafroth & G. T. Auble, 1999. Responses of riparian cottonwoods to alluvial water table declines. Environmental Management 23: 347–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Seavy, N. E., J. H. Viers & J. K. Wood, 2009a. Riparian bird response to vegetation structure: a multiscale analysis using LiDAR measurements of canopy height. Ecological Applications 19: 1848–1857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Seavy, N. E., T. Gardali, G. H. Golet, F. T. Griggs, C. A. Howell, R. Kelsey, S. L. Small, J. H. Viers & J. F. Weigand, 2009b. Why climate change makes riparian restoration more important than ever: recommendations for practice and research. Ecological Restoration 27: 330–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Shafroth, P. B., J. C. Stromberg & D. T. Patten, 2000. Woody riparian vegetation response to different alluvial water table regimes. Western North American Naturalist 60: 66–76.Google Scholar
  187. Shafroth, P. B., A. C. Wilcox, D. A. Lytle, J. T. Hickey, D. C. Andersen, V. B. Beauchamp, A. Hautzinger, L. E. McMullen & A. Warner, 2010. Ecosystem effects of environmental flows: modelling and experimental floods in a dryland river. Freshwater Biology 55: 68–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Sher, A. A., D. L. Marshall & S. A. Gilbert, 2000. Competition between Native Populus deltoides and Invasive Tamarix ramosissima and the implications for reestablishing flooding disturbance. Conservation Biology 14: 1744–1754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Sher, A. A., D. L. Marshall & J. P. Taylor, 2002. Establishment patterns of native Populus and Salix in the presence of invasive nonnative Tamarix. Ecological Applications 12: 760–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Sieben, E. J. J. & M. K. Reinecke, 2008. Description of reference conditions for restoration projects of riparian vegetation from the species-rich fynbos biome. South African Journal of Botany 74: 401–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Siegel, R. S. & J. H. Brock, 1990. Germination requirements of key southwestern woody riparian species. Desert Plants 10: 3–8.Google Scholar
  192. Singer, M. B., J. C. Stella, S. Dufour, L. B. Johnstone, H. Piégay & R. J. S. Wilson, 2012. Contrasting water uptake and growth responses to drought in co-occurring riparian tree species. Ecohydrology. doi: 10.1002/eco.1283.Google Scholar
  193. Stallins, J. A., 2006. Geomorphology and ecology: unifying themes for complex systems in biogeomorphology. Geomorphology 77: 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Steiger, J., E. Tabacchi, S. Dufour, D. Corenblit & J. L. Peiry, 2005. Hydrogeomorphic processes affecting riparian habitat within alluvial channel-floodplain river systems: a review for the temperate zone. River Research and Applications 21: 719–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Stella, J. C., 2005. A field-calibrated model of pioneer riparian tree recruitment for the San Joaquin Basin. Ph. D. Dissertation. University of California, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  196. Stella, J. C. & J. J. Battles, 2010. How do riparian woody seedlings survive seasonal drought? Oecologia 164: 579–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Stella, J. C., J. J. Battles, B. K. Orr & J. R. McBride, 2006. Synchrony of seed dispersal, hydrology and local climate in a semi-arid river reach in California. Ecosystems 9: 1200–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Stella, J. C. B., J. J. Battles, J. R. Mcbride & B. K. Orr, 2010. Riparian seedling mortality from simulated water table recession, and the design of sustainable flow regimes on regulated rivers. Restoration Ecology 18: 284–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Stella, J. C., M. K. Hayden, J. J. Battles, H. Piégay, S. Dufour & A. K. Fremier, 2011. The role of abandoned channels as refugia for sustaining pioneer riparian forest ecosystems. Ecosystems 14: 776–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Stella, J. C., J. Riddle, H. Piégay, M. Gagnage & M.-L. Trémélo, in press. Multi-scale hydrogeomorphic drivers of riparian forest decline along a Mediterranean-climate river. Geomorphology.Google Scholar
  201. Stromberg, J. C. & D. T. Patten, 1996. Instream flow and cottonwood growth in the eastern Sierra Nevada of California, USA. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 12: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Stromberg, J. C., S. J. Lite, T. J. Rychener, L. R. Levick, M. D. Dixon & J. M. Watts, 2006. Status of the riparian ecosystem in the upper San Pedro River, Arizona: application of an assessment model. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 115: 145–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Stromberg, J. C., S. J. Lite, R. Marler, C. Parazdick, P. B. Shafroth, D. Shorrock, J. M. White & M. S. White, 2007. Altered stream-flow regimes and invasive plant species: the Tamarix case. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 381–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Sutula, M. A., E. D. Stein, J. N. Collins, A. E. Fetscher & R. Clark, 2006. A practical guide for the development of a wetland assessment method: the California experience. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 42: 157–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Swift, C. C., S. M. Jacobs & K. J. Esler, 2008. Drought induced xylem embolism in four riparian trees from the Western Cape Province: insights and implications for planning and evaluation of restoration. South African Journal of Botany 74: 508–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Tabacchi, E., A. M. Planty-Tabacchi, M. J. Salinas & H. Décamps, 1996. Landscape structure and diversity in riparian plant communities: a longitudinal comparative study. Regulated Rivers: Research & Management 12: 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Taylor, M. P., S. Findlay, A. Fletcher, & P. Davies, 2005. A rapid riparian assessment tool for local council urban creek assessment: Ku-ring-gai Council, Sydney, NSW. In Rutherfurd, I. D., I. Wiszniewski, M. A. Askey-Doran & R. Glazik (eds), 4th Australian Stream Management Conference: Linking Rivers to Landscapes. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart, Launceston: 597–601.Google Scholar
  208. Tockner, K., J. V. Ward, B. A. Arscott, P. J. Edwards, J. Kollmann, A. M. Gurnell, G. E. Petts & B. Maiolini, 2003. The Tagliamento River: a model ecosystem of European importance. Aquatic Sciences 65: 239–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Tormos, T., P. Kosuth, S. Durrieu, B. Villeneuve & J. G. Wasson, 2011. Improving the quantification of land cover pressure on stream ecological status at the riparian scale using high spatial resolution imagery. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 36: 549–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Trush, W. J., S. M. Mcbain & L. B. Leopold, 2000. Attributes of an alluvial river and their relation to water policy and management. PNAS 97: 11858–11863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Underwood, E. C., J. H. Viers, K. R. Klausmeyer, R. L. Cox & M. R. Shaw, 2009. Threats and biodiversity in the Mediterranean biome. Diversity and Distributions 15: 188–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Vaghti, M. G. & S. E. Greco, 2007. Riparian vegetation of the great valley. In Barbour, M. G., T. Keeler-Wolf & A. Schoenherr (eds), Terrestrial Vegetation of California, 3rd ed. University of California Press, Berkeley: 425–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Varèse, P., 1994. Les groupements ligneux riverains de la Basse Durance (Provence). Colloques XXII Syntaxonomie typologique des habitats 22: 565–593.Google Scholar
  214. Vasconcelos, J., 1970. Plantas (angiospérmicas) aquáticas, anfibias e ribeirinhas. Secretaria de Estado da Agricultura, Direcção Geral dos Serviços Florestais e Aquícolas, Ministério da Agricultura, Lisboa.Google Scholar
  215. Vasilopoulos, G., I. Tsiripidis & V. Karagiannakidou, 2007. Do abandoned tree plantations resemble natural riparian forests? A case study from northeast Greece. Botanica Helvetica 117: 125–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Vaz, P. G., D. R. Warren, P. Pinto, E. C. Merten, C. T. Robinson & F. C. Rego, 2011. Tree type and forest management effects on the structure of stream wood following wildfires. Forest Ecology and Management 262: 561–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Verdú, M., P. Dávila, P. García-Fayos, N. Flores-Hernández & A. Valiente-Banuet, 2003. Convergent traits of Mediterranean woody plants belong to pre-Mediterranean lineages. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 78: 415–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Waterwatch Australia Steering Committee, 2004. Module 3–Biological Parameters, Waterwatch Australia National Technical Manual. Australia Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.Google Scholar
  219. Whitcraft, C. R., D. M. Talley, J. A. Crooks, J. Boland & J. Gaskin, 2007. Invasion of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) in a southern California salt marsh. Biological Invasions 9: 875–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Wiederkehr, E., S. Dufour & H. Piégay, 2010. Localisation et caractérisation des géomorphosites fluviaux à l’échelle des réseaux hydrographiques, exemples d’applications géomatiques dans le bassin de la Drôme. Géomorphologie: relief, processus, environnement 2: 175–188.Google Scholar
  221. Young-Mathews, A., S. W. Culman, S. Sánchez-Moreno, A. T. O’geen, H. Ferris, A. D. Hollander & L. E. Jackson, 2010. Plant-soil biodiversity relationships and nutrient retention in agricultural riparian zones of the Sacramento Valley, California. Agroforestry Systems 80: 41–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Zaimes, G. N., D. Gounaridis, V. Iakovoglou & D. Emmanouloudis, 2011. Riparian area studies in Greece: a literature review. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 20: 1470–1477.Google Scholar
  223. Zhang, X. L., R. G. Zang & C. Y. Li, 2004. Population differences in physiological and morphological adaptations of Populus davidiana seedlings in response to progressive drought stress. Plant Science 166: 791–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Zogaris, S., Y. Chatzinikolaou & P. Dimopoulos, 2009. Assessing environmental degradation of montane riparian zones in Greece. Journal of Environmental Biology 30: 719–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Stella
    • 1
  • Patricia M. Rodríguez-González
    • 2
  • Simon Dufour
    • 3
  • Jacob Bendix
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forest and Natural Resources ManagementState University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, One Forestry DriveSyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de AgronomiaUniversidade Técnica de Lisboa, Tapada da AjudaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.CNRS UMR 6554 LETG Rennes COSTELDépartement de Géographie, Université Rennes 2, Place du Recteur Henri Le MoalRennes CedexFrance
  4. 4.Department of GeographySyracuse University, 144 Eggers HallSyracuseUSA

Personalised recommendations