Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 663, Issue 1, pp 121–133 | Cite as

Relation between nematode communities and trophic state in southern Swedish lakes

  • Kai Ristau
  • Walter Traunspurger
Primary research paper

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine whether littoral nematode community patterns are shaped by lake trophic state. It was hypothesized that trophic level is associated negatively with the proportion of omnivores and positively with the percentages of bacterial feeders, but not at all with the diversity, abundance, and biomass of freshwater nematodes. Sediment samples were taken at littoral sites of eight southern Swedish lakes of different trophy in spring and autumn 2007. Trophic level was found to strongly influence species richness, as oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes supported the greatest species numbers, whereas nematode abundance, biomass, and Shannon index were unaffected. Furthermore, our results indicated effects on the nematode community’s trophic structure, with a larger proportion of predatory nematodes in oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes but no differences in the other feeding types (bacteria, algae and suction feeders, omnivorous species). Multivariate analysis indicated a shift in species compositions along the threshold from mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions, with the presence of Tobrilus gracilis, Monhystera paludicola, Brevitobrilus stefanskii, and Ethmolaimus pratensis related to the latter. Nematode communities in oligotrophic and mesotrophic lakes were characterized by a similar species composition, with pronounced occurrences of Eumonhystera longicaudatula, Semitobrilus cf. pellucidus, Prodesmodora circulata, and Rhabdolaimus terrestris. Overall, the results suggested that lake trophic state is a major factor structuring littoral nematode communities, although intra-lake variations might be of importance as well.

Keywords

Community patterns Diversity Feeding types Bioindicators Lake trophy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Michael Faupel and Stefanie Gehner for their help in field work and in the preparation of nematodes for identification. The Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU Uppsala Sweden, provided the limnological data of the Swedish lakes. We are grateful to Nicole Spann (Cambridge, UK) for helpful comments on the manuscript. Kai Ristau received a doctoral grant by the Scholarship Program of the Federal Environmental Foundation.

References

  1. Andrássy, I. 1956. Die Rauminhalts- und Gewichtsbestimmung der Fadenwürmer (Nematoden). Acta Zoologica Hungaria: 1–15.Google Scholar
  2. Andrássy, I., 1984. Klasse Nematoda (Ordnungen Monhysterida, Desmoscolecida, Araeolaimida, Rhabditida). Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  3. Beier, S. & W. Traunspurger, 2001. The meiofauna community of two small German streams as indicator of pollution. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 8: 387–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beier, S., M. Bolley & W. Traunspurger, 2004. Predator-prey interactions between Dugesia gonocephala and free-living nematodes. Freshwater Biology 49: 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergtold, M. & W. Traunspurger, 2004. The benthic community in the profundal of Lake Brunnsee: seasonal and spatial patterns. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 160: 527–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergtold, M. & W. Traunspurger, 2005. Benthic production by micro-, meio-, and macrobenthos in the profundal zone of an oligotrophic lake. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24: 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergtold, M., V. Gunther & W. Traunspurger, 2005. Is there competition among ciliates and nematodes? Freshwater Biology 50: 1351–1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bert, W., M. Messiaen, F. Hendrickx, J. Manhout, T. De Bie & G. Borgonie, 2007. Nematode communities of small farmland ponds. Hydrobiologia 583: 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bongers, T., 1987. De Nematoden van Nederland. Stichting Uitgeverij Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuuhistorische Verenigung, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  10. Brodersen, K. P. & C. Lindegaard, 1999. Classification, assessment, and trophic reconstruction of Danish lakes using chironomids. Freshwater Biology 42: 143–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brodersen, K. P., P. C. Dall & C. Lindegaard, 1998. The fauna in the upper stony littoral of Danish lakes: macroinvertebrates as trophic indicators. Freshwater Biology 39: 577–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Browne, R. A., 1981. Lakes as islands—biogeographic distribution, turnover rates, and species composition in the lakes of Central New-York. Journal of Biogeography 8: 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clarke, K. R. & R. M. Warwick, 2001. Changes in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation. Primer-E, Plymouth.Google Scholar
  14. Dodson, S., 1992. Predicting crustacean zooplankton species richness. Limnology and Oceanography 37: 848–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eder, R. & M. Kirchengast, 1982. The nematode-fauna (Nemathelminthes, Nematoda) of a polluted part of the river Mur (Styra, Austria). Nematologia Mediterranea 10: 127–134.Google Scholar
  16. Eyualem, A., 2004. Status quo of limno-nematology: how close are we to understanding the ecology of free-living neamtodes in inland waters bodies? In Cook, R. & D. J. Hunt (eds), Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Nematology. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden: 739–759.Google Scholar
  17. Eyualem, A., J. Mees & A. Coomans, 2001. Nematode communities of Lake Tana and other inland water bodies of Ethiopia. Hydrobiologia 462: 41–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Feller, R. J. & R. M. Warwick, 1988. Energetics. In Higgins, R. P. & H. Thiel (eds), Introduction to the Study of Meiofauna. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington: 181–196.Google Scholar
  19. Galassi, D., P. Marmonier, M.-J. Dole-Olivier & S. D. Rundle, 2002. Microcrustacea. In Rundle, S. D., A. L. Robertson & J. M. Schmid-Araya (eds), Freshwater Meiofauna. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 135–176.Google Scholar
  20. Giere, O., 2009. Meiobenthology: The Microscopic Motile Fauna of Aquatic Sediments. Berlin, Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. Goedkoop, W., K. R. Gullberg, R. K. Johnson & I. Ahlgren, 1997. Microbial response of a freshwater benthic community to a simulated diatom sedimentation event: interactive effects of benthic fauna. Microbial Ecology 34: 131–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hakenkamp, C. C., A. Morin & D. L. Strayer, 2002. The functional importance of freshwater Meiofauna. In Rundle, S. D., A. L. Robertson & J. M. Schmid-Araya (eds), Freshwater Meiofauna: Biology and Ecology. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 321–336.Google Scholar
  23. Hanson, J. M. & R. H. Peters, 1984. Empirical prediction of crustacean zooplankton biomass and profundal macrobenthos biomass in lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41: 439–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hirschmann, H., 1952. Die Nematoden der Wassergrenze mittelfränkischer Gewässer. Zoologische Jahrbücher (Systematik) 81: 313–407.Google Scholar
  25. Hodda, M., L. Peters & W. Traunspurger, 2009. Nematode diversity in terrestrial, freshwater aquatic and marine systems. In Wilson, M. J. & T. Kakouli-Duarte (eds), Nematodes as Environmental Indicators. CAB International, Oxfordshire: 45–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoess, S., W. Traunspurger & A. Zullini, 2006. Freshwater Nematodes in Environmental Science. In Eyualem, A., I. Andrássy & W. Traunspurger (eds), Freshwater Meiofauna. CABI Publishing, Leiden: 144–162.Google Scholar
  27. Hohberg, K. & W. Traunspurger, 2005. Predator-prey interaction in soil food web: functional response, size-dependent foraging efficiency, and the influence of soil texture. Biology and Fertility of Soils 41: 419–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holopainen, I. J. & L. Paasivirta, 1977. Abundance and biomass of meiozoobenthos in oligotrophic and mesohumic Lake Pääjarvi, southern Finland. Annales Zoologici Fennici 14: 124–134.Google Scholar
  29. Jeppesen, E., J. P. Jensen, M. Søndergaard, T. Lauridsen & F. Landkildehus, 2000. Trophic structure, species richness and biodiversity in Danish lakes: changes along a phosphorus gradient. Freshwater Biology 45: 201–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keller, W. & M. Conlon, 1994. Crustacean zooplankton communities and lake morphometry in Precambrian Shield Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51: 2424–2434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser (LAWA), 1999. Gewässerbewertung—stehende Gewässer. Vorläufige Richtlinie für eine Erstbewertung von natürlich entstandenen Seen nach trophischen Kriterien 1998. LAWA, Berlin.Google Scholar
  32. Langdon, P. G., Z. Ruiz, K. P. Brodersen & I. D. L. Foster, 2006. Assessing lake eutrophication using chironomids: understanding the nature of community response in different lakes types. Freshwater Biology 51: 562–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Macan, T. T. & R. Maudsley, 1969. Fauna of the stony substratum in lakes in the English Lake District. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Limnologie 17: 171–180.Google Scholar
  34. McCauley, E. & J. Kalff, 1981. Empirical relationships between phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass in lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38: 458–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Michiels, I. C. & W. Traunspurger, 2004. A three year study of seasonal dynamics of a zoobenthos community in a eutrophic lake. Nematology 6: 655–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Michiels, I. C. & W. Traunspurger, 2005a. Seasonal variation of biodiversity and assemblage structure in freshwater nematodes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 163: 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Michiels, I. C. & W. Traunspurger, 2005b. Benthic community patterns and the composition of feeding types and reproductive modes in freshwater nematodes. Nematology 7: 21–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Michiels, I. C. & W. Traunspurger, 2005c. Impact of resource availability on species composition and diversity in freshwater nematodes. Oecologia 142: 98–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Michiels, I. C., S. Matzak & W. Traunspurger, 2004. Maintenance of biodiversity through predation in freshwater nematodes? In Cook, R. & D. J. Hunt (eds), Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Nematology. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden: 723–737.Google Scholar
  40. Muschiol, D., M. Markovic, I. Threis & W. Traunspurger, 2008. Predator-prey relationship between the cyclopoid copepod Diacyclops bicuspidatus and a free-living bacterivorous nematode. Nematology 10: 55–62.Google Scholar
  41. Nalepa, T. F. & M. A. Quigley, 1983. Abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos in Nearshore Lake-Michigan withC to the macrobenthos. Journal of Great Lakes Research 9: 530–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nelson, D. R. & S. J. Mcinnes, 2002. Tardigrada. In Rundle, S. D., A. L. Robertson & J. M. Schmid-Araya (eds), Freshwater Meiofauna. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 177–216.Google Scholar
  43. Niemann, R., M. Arens, K. Koczwara & D. Sturhan. 1996. Untersuchungen über die Eignung von Nematoden zur Gütebewertung von Fliessgewässern. Mitteilungen aus der BioLogischen Bundesanstatt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Dahlem, Berlin: 195–208.Google Scholar
  44. Overhoff, A. 1994. Eignung von Nematoden zum Biomonitoring von Fließgewässersedimenten. Mitteilungen aus der BioLogischen Bundesanstatt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Dahlem, Berlin: 301, 330.Google Scholar
  45. Pennak, R. W., 1988. Ecology of freshwater meiofauna. In Higgins, R. P. & H. Thiel (eds), Introduction to the Study of Meiofauna. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington: 39–60.Google Scholar
  46. Peters, L. & W. Traunspurger, 2005. Species distribution of free-living nematodes and other meiofauna in littoral periphyton communities of lakes. Nematology 7: 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pfannkuche, O. & H. Thiel, 1988. Sample processing. In Higgins, R. P. & H. Thiel (eds), Introduction to the Study of Meiofauna. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington: 134–145.Google Scholar
  48. Pieczynska, E., A. Kolodziejczyk & J. I. Rybak, 1999. The response of littoral invertebrates to eutrophication-linked changes in plant communities. Hydrobiologia 391: 9–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Prejs, K., 1977a. The littoral and profundal benthic nematodes of lakes with different trophy. Ekologia Polska 25: 21–30.Google Scholar
  50. Prejs, K., 1977b. The species diversity, numbers and biomass of benthic nematodes in central part of lakes with different trophy. Ekologia Polska 25: 31–44.Google Scholar
  51. Rasmussen, J. B. & J. Kalff, 1987. Empirical models for zoobenthic biomass in lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44: 990–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Saether, O. A., 1979. Chironomid communities as water quality indicators. Holartic Ecology 2: 65–74.Google Scholar
  53. Schaumburg, J., I. Hehl, M. Hupfer, B. Köpf, U. Raeder, A. Melzer, J. Seele & W. Traunspurger, 2001. Kleinseen in Bayern—Ökologische Bewertung von Freiwasser, Sediment, Ufer und Einzugsgebiet Heft1/01. Bayrisches Landesamt für Wasserwirtschaft, Munich.Google Scholar
  54. Schmid, P. E. & J. M. Schmid-Araya, 2002. Trophic relationships in temporary and permanent freshwater meiofauna. In Rundle, S. D., A. L. Robertson & J. M. Schmid-Araya (eds), Freshwater Meiofauna. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 295–320.Google Scholar
  55. Schmid-Araya, J. M. & P. E. Schmid, 2000. Trophic relationships: integrating Meiofauna into a realistic benthic food web. Freshwater Biology 44: 149–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Seinhorst, J. W., 1959. A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica 4: 67–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Seinhorst, J. W., 1962. On the killing, fixation and transferring to glycerin of nematodes. Nematologica 8: 29–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Silver, P., M. A. Palmer, C. M. Swan & D. Wooster, 2002. The small scale ecology of freshwater meiofauna. In Rundle, S. D., A. L. Robertson & J. M. Schmid-Araya (eds), Freshwater Meiofauna. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 217–240.Google Scholar
  59. Strayer, D. & G. E. Likens, 1986. An energy budget for the zoobenthos of mirror lake, New Hampshire. Ecology 67: 303–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Strayer, D. L., S. E. May, P. Nielsen, W. Wollheim & S. Hausam, 1997. Oxygen, organic matter, and sediment granulometry as controls on hyporheic animal communities. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 140: 131–144.Google Scholar
  61. Thienemann, A., 1921. Seetypen. Naturwissenschaften 18: 1–3.Google Scholar
  62. Traunspurger, W., 1991. Fischbiologie des Königssees: Nahrungsangebot und Nahrungswahl—Band 1—Forschungsbericht 22. Nationalpark Berchtesgarden, Berchtesgarden.Google Scholar
  63. Traunspurger, W., 1996. Distribution of benthic nematodes in the littoral of an oligotrophic lake (Königssee, National Park Berchtesgaden, FRG). Archiv für Hydrobiologie 135: 393–412.Google Scholar
  64. Traunspurger, W., 1997. Bathymetric, seasonal and vertical distribution of feeding-types of nematodes in an oligotrophic lake. Vie Milieu 47: 1–7.Google Scholar
  65. Traunspurger, W., 2002. Nematoda. In Rundle, S. D., A. L. Robertson & J. M. Schmid-Araya (eds), Freshwater Meiofauna. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden: 63–104.Google Scholar
  66. Traunspurger, W., M. Bergtold & W. Goedkoop, 1997. The effects of nematodes on bacterial activity and abundance in a freshwater sediment. Oecologia 112: 118–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Traunspurger, W., I. C. Michiels & A. Eyualem, 2006. Composition and distribution of free-living freshwater nematodes: global and local perspectives. In Eyualem, A., I. Andrássy & W. Traunspurger (eds), Freshwater Nematodes: Ecology and Taxonomy. CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire: 46–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tudorancea, C. & A. Zullini, 1989. Associations and distribution of benthic nematodes in the Ethiopian rift-valley lakes. Hydrobiologia 179: 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wiederholm, T., 1980. Use of benthos in lake monitoring. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 52: 537–547.Google Scholar
  70. Witthöft-Mühlmann, A., W. Traunspurger & K. O. Rothhaupt, 2006. Nematodes of Lake Constance, Germany, with special reference to littoral communities of a river mouth area. Nematology 8: 539–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wu, J. H., C. Z. Fu, Y. L. Liang & J. K. Chen, 2004. Distribution of the meiofaunal community in a eutrophic shallow lake of China. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 159: 555–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yeates, G. W., T. Bongers, R. G. M. Degoede, D. W. Freckman & S. S. Georgieva, 1993. Feeding-habits in soil nematode families and genera—an outline for soil ecologists. Journal of Nematology 25: 315–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Zullini, A., 1976. Nematodes as indicators of river pollution. Nematologia Mediterranea 4: 13–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal EcologyBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations