Separation and analysis of different types of nematocysts from Cyanea capillata (L.) medusae
- 314 Downloads
Medusae play an important role in marine ecosystems, as competitors of many invertebrate and fish species. Additionally, jellyfish stings can cause severe pain, inflammation of the affected skin, and allergic reactions in human. Climate and environmental changes are likely to affect the medusae, but it is not yet clear whether these will affect their distribution, physiology, and their toxicity. Very little is known about the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the proliferation and the distribution of medusan nematocysts. In this study, we compared three types of nematocysts (euryteles and A- and O-isorhizas) and venoms of Cyanea capillata medusae (Scyphozoa) obtained from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, which have different salinity and temperature ranges. Different types of nematocysts were separated by laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC), and the proteinaceous contents of the nematocysts were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Medusae from the brackish Baltic Sea possessed more euryteles than those from the North Sea. The O-isorhizas and A-isorhizas were smaller in the Baltic Sea sample compared to the North Sea samples and the length-to-width ratios were larger in the Baltic Sea sample. Moreover, the pattern of proteins (potential toxins) obtained from the separated nematocysts showed differences among samples and nematocyst types, but no clear pattern was observable. This study displays the novel LMPC/MALDI-TOF MS approach as a useful tool to investigate the function and venom of cnidarian nematocysts types.
KeywordsJellyfish Sting Protein pattern LMPC Mass spectrometry Cnidom Venom
We are grateful to Dr. Jürgen Gandraß (GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Costal Research, Department for Marine Bioanalytical Chemistry) for critically reading the manuscript.
- Bruker Daltonik GmbH, 2004. AnchorChipTM technology, revision 2.3. Preparation for ultra-sensitive automated MALDI-TOF MS. Bruker Daltonik, Bremen: 17.Google Scholar
- Helmholz, H., B. D. Johnston, C. Ruhnau & A. Prange, 2010. Gill cell toxicity of northern boreal scyphomedusae Cyanea capillata and Aurelia aurita measured by an in vitro cell assay. Hydrobiologia. doi:10.1007/s10750-010-0216-9.
- Hessinger, D. A., 1988. Nematocyst venoms and toxins. In Hessinger, D. A. & H. N. Lenhoff (eds), The Biology of Nematocysts. Academic Press, San Diego: 333–367.Google Scholar
- Lassen, S., H. Helmholz, C. Ruhnau & A. Prange, 2010. Characterisation of neurotoxic polypeptides from Cyanea capillata medusae (Scyphozoa). Hydrobiologia. doi:10.1007/s10750-010-0215-x.
- Mariscal, R. N., 1974. Nematocysts. In Muscatine, L. & H. M. Lenhoff (eds), Coelenterate Biology. Academic Press, New York: 129–178.Google Scholar
- Östman, C. & J. Hydman, 1997. Nematocyst analysis of Cyanea capillata and Cyanea lamarckii (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria). Scientia Marina 61: 313–344.Google Scholar
- Östman, C., A. Aquirre, M. Myrdal, P. Nyvall, J. Lindström & M. Björklund, 1995. Nematocysts in Tubularia larynx (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from Scandinavia and the northern coast of Spain. Scientia Marina 59: 165–179.Google Scholar
- Purcell, J. E. & M. B. Decker, 2005. Effects of climate on relative predation by scyphomedusae and ctenophores on copepods in Chesapeake Bay during 1987–2000. Limnology and Oceanography 50: 376–387.Google Scholar
- Purcell, J. E. & C. E. Mills, 1988. The correlation between nematocyst types and diets in pelagic Hydrozoa. In Hessinger, D. A. & H. M. Lenhoff (eds), The Biology of Nematocysts. Academic Press, San Diego: 463–485.Google Scholar
- Weill, R., 1934. Contribution à ľ étude des cnidaires et de leurs nématocystes. Travaux de la Station Zoologique de Wimereux 10(11): 1–701.Google Scholar
- Wiebring, A., H. Helmholz, I. Sötje, S. Lassen, A. Prange & H. Tiemann, 2010. A new method for the separation of different types of nematocysts from Scyphozoa and investigation of proteinaceous toxins utilizing laser catapulting and subsequent mass spectrometry. Marine Biotechnology. doi: 10.1007/s10126-010-9261-7.