Hydrobiologia

, Volume 636, Issue 1, pp 233–248 | Cite as

Diversity of microbial eukaryotes in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

Primary Research Paper

Abstract

Microbial eukaryote diversity was assessed in Arctic Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), by constructing SSU rDNA clone libraries. Samples were collected from different depths at the outer basin in summer (2006), plus an additional one glacial and one sediment sample. The libraries displayed diversity based on 284 full-length sequences. Four main phyla, namely, Alveolates, Stramenopiles, Cercozoans, and Metazoans were often screened in this fjord. Alveolate occupied the highest percentage of taxa in the library of surface sea water, besides the Metazoan-related clones. Moreover, dinoflagellates, diatoms, and pico-Prasinophytes were detected as prevalent phytoplankton through the analysis of libraries. Questions related to the quantity of these phytoplankton and their roles in the microbial food loop arose from an ecological viewpoint.

Keywords

Biodiversity Kongsfjorden Microbial eukaryotes SSU rDNA Vertical profile 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40806073, 40876097); the Youth Innovation foundation of Polar research Institute of China (JDQ200701); Polar Strategic Research Foundation of China; Youth Marine Science Foundation (2008128), SOA; and Resource-sharing Platform of Polar Samples (2005DKA21406). We acknowledge the logistic support from Kingsbay AS, Svalbard. We also appreciate the technical assistance from Q. Luo, YY. Lou, CJ. Zhu, HB. Teng, and CY. Guo. We also thank the reviewers for their advices.

References

  1. Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, M. A. Farmer, R. A. Andersen, O. R. Anderson & J. R. Barta, 2005. The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protist. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52: 399–451.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Agatha, S., M. C. Strüder-Kypke & A. Beran, 2004. Morphologic and genetic variability in the marine planktonic ciliate Laboea strobila Lohmann, 1908 (Ciliophora, Oligotrichia), with notes on its ontogenesis. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51: 267–281.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alekseev, V., H. J. Dumont, J. Pensaert, D. Baribwegure & J. R. Vanfleteren, 2006. A redescription of Eucyclops serrulatus (Fischer, 1851) (Crustaceae: Copepoda: Cyclopoida) and some related taxa, with a phylogeny of the E. serrulatus-group. Zoologica Scripta 35: 123–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buck, K. & D. Garrison, 1988. Distribution and abundance of choanoflagellates (Acanthoecidae) across the ice-edge zone in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Marine Biology 98: 263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chao, A., 1987. Estimating the population size for capture-recapture data with unequal catchability. Biometrics 43: 783–791.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Countway, P. D., R. J. Gast, P. Savai & D. A. Caron, 2005. Protistan diversity estimates based on 18S rDNA from seawater incubations in the Western North Atlantic. Journal Eukaryotic Microbiology 52: 95–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Díez, B., C. Pedrós-Alió & R. Masanna, 2001. Study of genetic diversity of eukaryotic picoplankton in different oceanic regions by small-subunit rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 2932–2941.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Edgcomb, V. P., D. T. Kysela, A. Teske, A. de Vera Gomez & M. L. Sogin, 2002. Benthic eukaryotic diversity in the Guaymas basin hydrothermal vent environment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences United States of America 99: 7658–7662.Google Scholar
  9. Edvardsen, B., W. Eikrem, J. C. Green, R. A. Andersen, S. Y. Moon-van der Staay & L. K. Medlin, 2000. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the Haptophyta inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences and available morphological data. Phycologia 39: 19–35.Google Scholar
  10. Fuller, N. J., C. Campbell, D. J. Allen, F. D. Pitt, K. Zwirglmaier, F. Le Gall, D. Vaulot & D. J. Scanlan, 2006. Analysis of photosynthetic picoeukaryote diversity at open ocean sites in the Arabian Sea using a PCR biased towards marine algal plastids. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 43: 79–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gast, R. J., D. M. Moran, D. J. Beaudoin, J. N. Blythe, M. R. Dennett & D. A. Caron, 2006. Abundance of a novel dinoflagellate phylotype in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Journal of Phycology 42: 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gromov, B. V., A. V. Plujusch & K. A. Marnkaeva, 1999. Morphology and possible host range of Rhizophydium algavorum sp. nov. (Chytridiales)—an obligate parasite of algae. Protistology 1: 62–65.Google Scholar
  13. Guillou, L., W. Eikrem, M. J. Chrétiennot-Dinet, F. Le Gall, R. Massana, K. Romari, C. Pedrós-Alió & D. Vaulot, 2004. Diversity of picoplanktonic prasinophytes assessed by direct nuclear SSU rDNA sequencing of environmental samples and novel isolates retrieved from oceanic and coastal marine ecosystems. Protist 155: 193–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Harada, A., S. Ohtsuka & T. Horiguchi, 2007. Species of the Parasitic Genus Duboscquella are members of the Enigmatic Marine Alveolate Group I. Protist 158: 337–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hepperle, D., 2003. Align, Manual Sequence Alignment Editor for PCs. Distributed by the author. http://wwwuser.gwdg.de/~dhepper/.
  16. Hop, H., T. Pearson, E. N. Hegseth, K. M. Kovacs, C. Wiencke, S. Kwasniewski, K. Eiane, F. Mehlum, B. Gulliksen, M. Wlodarska-Kowalezuk, C. Lydersen, J. M. Weslawski, S. Cochrane, G. W.Gabrielsen, R. J. G. Leakey, O. J. Lonne, M. Zajaczkowski, S. Falk-Petersen, M. Kendall, S. A. Wangberg, K. Bischof, A. Y. Voronkov, N. A. Kovaltchouk, J. Wiktor, M. Poltermann, G. di Prisco, C. Papucci & S. Gerland, 2002. The marine ecosystem of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Polar Research 21: 167–208.Google Scholar
  17. Hughes, J. B., J. J. Hellmann, T. H. Ricketts & B. J. M. Bohannan, 2001. Counting the uncountable: statistical approaches to estimating microbial diversity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 4399–4406.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ikävalko, J. & H. A. Thomsen, 1997. The Baltic Sea biota (March 1994): A study of the protistan community. European Journal of Protistology 33: 229–243.Google Scholar
  19. Klaveness, D., K. Shalchian-Tibrizi, H. A. Thomsen, W. Eikrem & K. S. Jakobsen, 2005. Telonema antarcticum sp. nov., a common marine phagotrophic flagellate. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 55: 2595–2604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kühn, S., M. Lange & L. K. Medlin, 2000. Phylogenetic position of Cryothecomonas inferred from Nuclear-Encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA. Protist 151: 337–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kwasniewski, S., H. Hop, S. Falk-Petersen & G. Pedersen, 2003. Distribution of Calanus species in Kongsfjorden, a glacial fjord in Svalbard. Journal of Plankton Research 25: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lefèvre, E., C. Bardot, C. Noēl, J. F. Carrias, E. Viscoglios, C. Amblard & T. Sime-Ngando, 2007. Unveiling fungal zooflagellates as members of freshwater picoeukaryotes: evidence from a molecular diversity study in a deep meromictic lake. Environmental Microbiology 9: 61–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. López-García, P., F. Rodriguez-Valera & C. Pedrós-Alió, 2001. Unexpected diversity of small eukaryotes in deep-sea Antarctic plankton. Nature 409: 603–606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lovejoy, C., R. Massana & C. Pedrós-Alió, 2006. Diversity and distribution of marine microbial eukaryotes in the Arctic Ocean and Adjacent seas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 3085–3095.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lovejoy, C., W. F. Vincent, S. Bonilla & S. Roy, 2007. Distribution, phylogeny, and growth of cold-adapted picoprasinophytes in Arctic seas. Journal of Phycology 43: 78–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Luo, W., S. Pflugmacher, T. Pröschold, N. Walz & L. Krienitz, 2006. Genotype versus phenotype variability in Chlorella and Micractinium (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Protist 157: 315–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Massana, R., V. Balagué, L. Guillou & C. Pedrós-Alió, 2004. Picoeukaryotic diversity in an oligotrophic coastal site studied by molecular and culturing approaches. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 50: 231–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Medlin, L. K., H. J. Elwood, S. Stickel & M. L. Sogin, 1988. The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. Gene 71: 491–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Michaela, C., M. C. Strüder-Kypke & D. H. Lynn, 2003. Sequence analyses of the small subunit rRNA gene confirm the paraphyly of oligotrich ciliate sensu lato and support the monophyly of the subclasses Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea). Journal of Zoology 260: 87–97.Google Scholar
  30. Moon-van der Staay, S. Y., R. De Wachter & D. Vaulot, 2001. Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity. Nature 409: 607–610.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Not, F., M. Latasa & D. Marie, 2004. A single species Micromonas pusilla (Prasinophyceae), dominates the eukaryotic picoplankton in the Western English Channel. Applied Environmental Microbiology 70: 4064–4072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Not, F., R. Masssana, M. Latasa, D. Marie, C. Colson, W. Eikrem, C. Pedrós-Alió, D. Vaulot & N. Simon, 2005. Late summer community composition and abundance of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes in Norwegian and Barents Seas. Limnology and Oceanography 50: 1677–1686.Google Scholar
  33. Not, F., R. Gausling, F. Azam, J. F. Heidelberg & A. Z. Worden, 2007. Vertical distribution of picoeukaryotic diversity in the Sargasso Sea. Environmental Microbiology 9: 1233–1252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Romari, K. & D. Vaulot, 2004. Composition and temporal variability of picoeukaryote communities at a coastal site of English Channel from 18S rDNA sequence. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 784–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sarno, D., W. H. C. F. Kooistra, S. Balzano, P. E. Hargraves & A. Zingone, 2007. Diversity in the genus Skeletonema (Bacillariophyceae): III. Phylogenetic position and morphological variability of Skeletonema costatum and Skeletonema grevillei, with the description of Skeletonema ardens sp. nov. Journal of Phycology 43: 156–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sime-Ngando, T., M. Gosselin, S. K. Juniper & M. Lavasseur, 1997. Changes in sea-ice phagotrophic microprotists (20–200 μm) during the spring algal bloom, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Journal of Marine Systems 11: 163–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stoeck, T. & S. Epstein, 2003. Novel eukaryotic lineages inferred from small-subunit rRNA analyses of oxygen-depleted marine environments. Applied Environmental Microbiology 69: 2657–2663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Svendsen, H., A. Beszczynska-Moller, J. O. Hagen, B. Lefauconnier, V. Tverberg, S. Gerland, J. B. Orbaek, K. Bischof, C. Papucci, M. Zajaczkowski, R. Azzolini, O. Bruland, C. Wiencke, J. G. Winther & W. Dallmann, 2002. The physical environment of Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden, an Arctic fjord system in Svalbard. Polar Research 21: 133–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Takishita, K., H. Miyake, M. Kawato & T. Maruyama, 2005. Genetic diversity of microbial eukaryotes in anoxic sediment around fumaroles on a submarine caldera floor based on the small-subunit rDNA phylogeny. Extremophiles 9: 185–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Thomsen, H., 1982. Planktonic choanoflagellates from Disko Bugt, West Greenland, with a survey of the marine nanoplankton of the area Meddelelser om Gronland. Bioscience 8: 3–36.Google Scholar
  41. Throndsen, J. & S. Kristiansen, 1991. Micromonas pusilla (Prasinophyceae) as part of picoplankton and nanoplankton communities of the Barents Sea. Polar Research 10: 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vaulot, D., F. L. Gall & D. Marie, 2004. The Roscoff culture collection (RCC): A collection dedicated to marine picoplankton. Nova Hedwigia 79: 49–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vaulot, D., W. Eikrem, M. Viprey & H. Moreau, 2008. The diversity of small eukaryotic phytoplankton (<3 μm) in marine ecosystems. FEMS Microbiology Review 32: 795–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang, G. Z., C. Y. Guo, W. Luo, M. H. Cai & J. F. He, 2009. The distribution of picoplankton and nanoplankton in Kongsfjorden during late summer 2006. Polar Biology 32: 1233–1238.Google Scholar
  45. Zeidner, G., C. M. Preston & E. F. Delong, 2003. Molecular diversity among marine picophytoplankton as revealed by psbA analyses. Environmental Microbiology 5: 212–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Luo
    • 1
  • Huirong Li
    • 1
  • Minghong Cai
    • 1
  • Jianfeng He
    • 1
  1. 1.SOA Key Laboratory for Polar SciencePolar Research Institute of ChinaShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations