Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 622, Issue 1, pp 45–84 | Cite as

Hydrological characteristics of three North African coastal lagoons: insights from the MELMARINA project

  • J. R. Thompson
  • R. J. Flower
  • M. Ramdani
  • F. Ayache
  • M. H. Ahmed
  • E. K. Rasmussen
  • O. S. Petersen
NORTH AFRICAN COASTAL LAGOONS

Abstract

Hydrological and hydrodynamic characteristics are important controls in all wetlands including coastal lagoons. Enhanced understanding of lagoon functioning can be obtained through the acquisition and interpretation of hydrological, meteorological and related data. The MELMARINA Project investigated links between hydrological and ecological conditions within North African coastal lagoons. It employed three primary sites: Merja Zerga in Morocco, Ghar El Melh in Tunisia and Lake Manzala in Egypt. Hydrological, meteorological and related data were acquired for these lagoons. Data included precipitation, evaporation, wind speed and direction, freshwater discharges into the lagoons, tides beyond the lagoons in the open sea, lagoon bathymetry and time series of lagoon water levels/depths. Data were acquired from secondary sources (including online archives) and targeted field survey and monitoring programmes. Interpretation of these data provides insights into the hydrological functioning of the lagoons and contributed to the modelling requirements of MELMARINA. The functioning of Merja Zerga is dominated by the exchange of water between the Atlantic and the lagoon. Large, tidally induced oscillations in water level are responsible for the inundation of extensive inter-tidal mudflats whilst the rapid replacement of water by exchanges with the sea diminishes the influence of freshwater inflows and winter rainfall. The smaller Mediterranean tides reduce the magnitude of lagoon–sea exchanges and result in much smaller water level oscillations within Ghar El Melh. As a result, this lagoon lacks the inter-tidal environments found within the Moroccan site and hydrodynamic conditions are more likely influenced by wind set up. Although freshwater inflows to Ghar El Melh are smaller than those in Merja Zerga, their effects, coupled with heavy winter rainfall, can persist due to longer residence times of water within the lagoon. Freshwater inflows are central to the functioning of Lake Manzala. Large discharges of relatively freshwater are provided by major drains which cross the Nile Delta. These influence lake water levels and are responsible for the freshwater conditions within large parts of the lake. The small tidal range of the eastern Mediterranean, coupled with constricted connections with the sea, reduces the influence of lake–sea exchanges and tidally induced water level oscillations within Lake Manzala.

Keywords

Coastal lagoons North Africa Mediterranean Hydrological and meteorological data Hydrological functioning Monitoring 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The MELMARINA project was financed by the EU Framework V INCO-Med Programme (Grant ICA3-CT2002-10009). The authors acknowledge the assistance of all the partner institutions in the project. Particular contributions to this article through participation in field programmes and/or subsequent data processing were made by the following individuals at their respective institutions: NARSS—Dr B. El-Leithy and Dr S. Zaghloul; UCL—Ms C. Chambers, Dr S. Duvail, Mr B. Flower, Mr T. Germain (on secondment from ENSG, France), Dr J. Hu, Mr M. Hughes and Ms R. Rochester. Further assistance in the field, which included the provision of boats and security for logging instrumentation, was provided by local people. Particular thanks are owed to Mr M. Mesbah (Merja Zerga) and Mr R. Oueldi (Ghar El Melh).

References

  1. Aguado, E. & J. E. Burt, 2001. Understanding Weather and Climate, 2nd ed. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed, M. H., B. M. El Leithy, J. R. Thompson, R. J. Flower, M. Ramdani, F. Ayache & S. M. Hassan, 2009. Application of remote sensing to site characterisation and environmental change analysis of North Africa coastal lagoons. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9682-8.
  3. Al-Khudhairy, D., J. R. Thompson, H. Gavin & N. A. S. Hamm, 1999. Hydrological modelling of a drained grazing marsh under agricultural land use and the simulation of restoration management scenarios. Hydrological Sciences Journal 44: 943–971.Google Scholar
  4. Andersen, O. B., 1995. Global ocean tides from ERS-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research 100: 25,249–25,259.Google Scholar
  5. Andrulewicz, E. & B. Chubarenko, 2005. Monitoring program design. In Gönenc, E. & J. P. Wolfin (eds), Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton: 307–330.Google Scholar
  6. Andersen, J., J. C. Refsgaard & K. H. Jensen, 2001. Distributed hydrological modelling of the Senegal River Basin—model construction and validation. Journal of Hydrology 247: 200–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnell, N. W., 2004. Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14: 31–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ayache, F., J. R. Thompson, R. J. Flower, A. Boujarra, F. Rouatbi & H. Makina, 2009. Environmental characteristics, landscape history and pressures on three coastal lagoons in the Southern Mediterranean Region: Merja Zerga (Morocco), Ghar El Melh (Tunisia) and Lake Manzala (Egypt). Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9676-6.
  9. Badosa, A., D. Boix, S. Brucet, R. López-Flores & X. D. Quintana, 2006. Nutrients and zooplankton composition and dynamics in relation to the hydrological pattern in a confined Mediterranean salt marsh (NE Iberian Peninsula). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 66: 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker, C., M. Simpson & J. R. Thompson, in press. Hydrological dynamics I: surface waters, flood and sediment dynamics. In Maltby, E. B. & T. Barker (eds), The Wetlands Handbook. Blackwells, London.Google Scholar
  11. Benblidia, M., J. Margat & D. Vallée, 1997. Water in the Mediterranean Region: Situations, Perspectives and Strategies for Sustainable Water Resources Management, 2nd ed. Blue Plan for the Mediterranean Regional Activity Centre (BP/RAC), Sophia, Antipolis.Google Scholar
  12. Benessaiah, N. & M. Belhaj (eds), 1999. Mediterranean Wetlands Socio-economic Aspects. The MedWet Programme: Conservation and Wise use of Wetlands in the Mediterranean Basin. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland.Google Scholar
  13. Bianchi, F., E. Ravagnan, F. Acri, F. Bernardi-Aubry, A. Boldrin, E. Camatti, D. Cassin & M. Turchetto, 2004. Variability and fluxes of hydrology, nutrients and particulate matter between the Venice lagoon and the Adriatic Sea. Preliminary results (years 2001–2002). Journal of Marine Systems 51: 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Birks, H. H., H. J. B. Birks, R. J. Flower, S. M. Peglar & M. Ramdani, 2001a. Recent ecosystem dynamics in nine North African lakes in the CASSARINA projects. Aquatic Ecology 35: 461–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Birks, H. H., S. M. Peglar, I. Boomer, R. J. Flower, P. G. Appleby, M. Ramdani, M. M. Kraiem, A. A. Fathi & H. M. A. Abdelzaher, 2001b. Palaeolimnological responses of nine North African Lakes to recent environmental changes and human impacts detected by macrofossil and pollen analyses. Aquatic Ecology 36: 431–448.Google Scholar
  16. Bouzaiane, S. & H. L. Frigui, 2003. Crues et Inondations Dans la Basse Vallée de l’Oued Mejerda-Janvier-Février 2003, Tronçon Laroussia-La Mer. Rapport Provisoire. Ministère de l’Agriculture de l’Environnement et des Ressources en Eau. Direction Générale des Ressources en Eau, Tunis.Google Scholar
  17. Brinson, M. M., 1993. A Hydrogeomorphic Classification for Wetlands. Technical Report WRP-DE-4. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  18. Brinson, M. M., R. D. Rheinhardt, F. R. Hauer, L. C. Lee, W. L. Nutter, R. D. Smith & D. Whigham, 1995. A Guidebook for Application of Hydrogeomorphic Assessments to Riverine Wetlands. Technical Report WRP-DE-11. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  19. Carafa, R., D. Marinov, S. Dueri, J. Wollgast, J. Ligthart, E. P. Canuti, P. Viaroli & J. M. Zaldívar, 2006. A 3D hydrodynamic fate and transport model for herbicides in Sacca di Goro coastal lagoon (Northern Adriatic). Marine Pollution Bulletin 52: 1231–1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chainho, P., J. L. Costa, M. L. Chaves, M. F. Lane, D. M. Dauer & M. J. Costa, 2006. Seasonal and spatial patterns of distribution of subtidal benthic invertebrate communities in the Mondego River, Portugal—a poikilohaline estuary. Hydrobiologia 555: 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chekir, H., 2003. Crues de la Mejerda de janvier-février 2003. Etude de la protection contre les inondations. Rapport final. Ministère de l’Agriculture, Direction Générale des Barrages et des Grands Travaux Hydrauliques, Tunis.Google Scholar
  22. Chubarenko, B., V. G. Koutitonsky, R. Neves & G. Umgiesser, 2005. Modeling concepts. In Gönenc, E. & J. P. Wolfin (eds), Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton: 231–306.Google Scholar
  23. De Pippo, T. C., D. Donadio, Grottola & M. Pennetta, 2004. Geomorphological evolution and environmental reclamation of Fusaro Lagoon (Campania Province, southern Italy). Environment International 30: 199–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Duarte, P., M. F. Macedo & L. C. da Fonseca, 2006. The relationship between phytoplankton diversity and community function in a coastal lagoon. Hydrobiologia 555: 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. FAO, 2005. Country Profile: Egypt. Food and Agriculture Programme of the United Nations, Rome.Google Scholar
  26. Fathi, A. A. & H. M. A. Abdelzaher, 2000. Site description for the Egyptian lakes and results of water chemistry and phytoplankton for CASSARINA Lakes. CASSARINA Project Final Report. University of El Minia, El Minia.Google Scholar
  27. Flower, R. J., 2001. Change, stress, sustainability and aquatic ecosystem resilience in North African wetland lakes during the 20th century: an introduction to integrated biodiversity studies within the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic Ecology 35: 261–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Flower, R. J. & J. R. Thompson, 2004. MELMARINA (Monitoring and Modelling Coastal Lagoons: Making Management Tools for Aquatic Resources in North Africa) - Protocol Manual: Guide to Fieldwork Procedures and Laboratory Techniques. Environmental Change Research Centre and Wetland Research Unit. Department of Geography, UCL, London.Google Scholar
  29. Flower, R. J. & J. R. Thompson (eds), 2006. MELMARINA: Monitoring and modelling coastal lagoons: Making management tools for aquatic resources in North Africa: Final Report. IC-CT-2002-10009. Environmental Change Research Centre and Wetland Research Unit, Department of Geography, UCL, London.Google Scholar
  30. Flower, R. J. & J. R. Thompson, 2009. An overview of integrated hydro-ecological studies in the MELMARINA Project: monitoring and modelling coastal lagoons—making management tools for aquatic resources in North Africa. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9674-8.
  31. Flower, R. J., S. Dobinson, M. Ramdani, M. M. Kraïem, C. Ben Hamza, A. A. Fathi, H. M. A. Abdelzaher, H. H. Birks, P. G. Appleby, J. A. Lees, E. Shilland & S. T. Patrick, 2001. Recent environmental change in North African wetland lakes: diatom and other stratigraphic evidence from the nine sites in the CASSARINA project. Aquatic Ecology 35: 369–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Flower, R. J., P. G. Appleby, J. R. Thompson, M. H. Ahmed, M. Ramdani, L. Chouba, N. Rose, R. Rochester, F. Ayache, M. M. Kraiem, N. Elkhiati, S. El Kafrawy, H. Yang & E. K. Rasmussen, 2009. Sediment distribution and accumulation in lagoons of the Southern Mediterranean region (the MELMARINA Project) with special reference to environmental change and aquatic ecosystems. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9677-5.
  33. Gamito, S., 2006. Benthic ecology of semi-natural coastal lagoons, in the Ria Formosa (Southern Portugal), exposed to different water renewal regimes. Hydrobiologia 555: 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gamito, S., J. Gilabert, C. M. Diego & A. Perez-Ruzafa, 2005. Effects of changing environmental conditions on lagoon ecology. In Gönenc, E. & J. P. Wolfin (eds), Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton: 193–229.Google Scholar
  35. Germain, T., 2003. Contribution de la Topométrie à une Modélisation Intégrée de la Lagune de Merja Zerga (Maroc). Rapport de Projet Pluridisciplinaire, Ecole Nationale des Sciences Geographiques, Champs sur Marne.Google Scholar
  36. Ghorbel, A., 2003. Crues et Inondations de la Mejerda—Janvier-Février 2003—Rapport de Synthèse. Republique Tunisienne, Ministère de l’Agriculture de l’Environnement et des Ressources en Eau. Direction Générales des Ressources en Eau. Direction des Eaux de Surfaces, Tunis.Google Scholar
  37. Gilvear, D. J. & C. Bradley, 2000. Hydrological monitoring and surveillance for wetland conservation and management: a UK perspective. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere 25: 571–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gönenc, E. & J. P. Wolfin, 2005. Introduction. In Gönenc, E. & J. P. Wolfin (eds), Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton: 1–5.Google Scholar
  39. Green, A. J., M. El Hamzaoui, M. A. El Agbani & J. Franchmont, 2002. The conservation status of Moroccan wetlands with particular reference to water birds and to changes since 1978. Biological Conservation 104: 71–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guillaume, B. & A. Comeau (eds), 2005. A Sustainable Future for the Mediterranean: The Blue Plan’s Environment and Development Outlook. Earthscan, London.Google Scholar
  41. Herrera-Silveira, J. A., J. R. Ramirez & Z. J. Zaldivar, 1998. Overview and characterization of the hydrology and primary producer communities of selected coastal lagoons of the Yucatan, Mexico. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 1: 353–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hollis, G. E., 1986. The Modelling and Management of the Internationally Important Wetland at Garaet El Ichkeul, Tunisia. IWRB Special Publication No. 4. IWRB, Slimbridge.Google Scholar
  43. Hollis, G. E., 1990. Environmental impacts of development on wetlands in arid and semi-arid lands. Hydrological Sciences Journal 35: 411–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hollis, G. E. & J. R. Thompson, 1998. Hydrological data for wetland management. Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management 12: 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hughes, J. M. R., F. Ayache, G. E. Hollis, F. Maamouri, C. Avis, C. Giansante & J. R. Thompson, 1997. A Preliminary Inventory of Tunisian Wetlands. Report to EEC (DG XII), Ramsar Bureau and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. UCL, London.Google Scholar
  46. IPCC, 2007. Climate Change 2007. In Parry, M. L., O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden & C. E. Hanson (eds), Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  47. Kingsford, R. T., A. D. Lemly & J. R. Thompson, 2006. Impacts of dams, river management and diversions on desert rivers. In Kingsford, R. T. (ed.), Ecology of Desert Rivers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 203–247.Google Scholar
  48. Kite, G., 2001. Modelling the Mekong: hydrological simulation for environmental impact studies. Journal of Hydrology 253: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kjerfve, B., 1994. Coastal lagoons. In Kjerfve, B. (ed.), Coastal Lagoon Processes. Elsevier Oceanographic Series 60. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam: 1–8.Google Scholar
  50. Kjerfve, B. & K. E. Magill, 1989. Geographic and hydrographic characteristics of shallow coastal lagoons. Marine Geology 88: 187–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Koutitonsky, V. G., 2005. Three-dimensional structure of wind-driven currents in coastal lagoons. In Gönenc, E. & J. P. Wolfin (eds), Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton: 376–391.Google Scholar
  52. Kraïem, M. M., L. Chouba, M. Ramdani, M. H. Ahmed, J. R. Thompson & R. J. Flower, 2009. The fish fauna of three North African lagoons: specific inventories, ecological status and production. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9679-3.
  53. Le Provost, C., A. F. Bennett & D. E. Cartwright, 1995. Ocean tides for and from TOPEX/POSEIDON. Science 267: 639–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Legovi, T., 1997. Ecological modelling internet resources. Ecological Modelling 100: 163–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lemly, A. D., R. T. Kingsford & J. R. Thompson, 2000. Irrigated agriculture and wildlife conservation: conflict on a global scale. Environmental Management 25: 485–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lutgens, F. K. & E. J. Tarbuck, 2001. The Atmosphere, 8th ed. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  57. Marshall, D. C. W., 1989. The Instrumentation of Flat, Low-Lying Catchments for Hydrological Research, Institute of Hydrology Report No. 105. Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  58. Mitsch, W. J. & J. G. Gosselink, 2000. Wetlands, 3rd ed. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Molinaroli, E., S. Guerzoni, A. Sarretta, A. Cucco & G. Umgiesser, 2007. Links between hydrology and sedimentology in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Journal of Marine Systems 68: 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. NASA, Undated. TOPEX/Poseidon Factsheet. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, California.Google Scholar
  61. Newson, M. D., 1994. Hydrology and the River Environment. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  62. Nicholls, R. J., 2004. Coastal flooding and wetland loss in the 21st century: changes under the SRES climate and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14: 69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nicholls, R. J. & F. M. J. Hoozemans, 1996. The Mediterranean: vulnerability to coastal implications of’ climate change. Ocean and Coastal Management 31: 105–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nicholls, R. J., F. M. J. Hoozemans & M. Marchand, 1999. Increasing flood risk and wetland losses due to global sea-level rise: regional and global analyses. Global Environmental Change 9: S69–S87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Patrício, J., R. Ulanowicz, M. A. Pardal & J. C. Marques, 2006. Ascendancy as ecological indicator for environmental quality assessment at the ecosystem level: a case study. Hydrobiologia 555: 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Perez-Ruzafa, A., C. M. Diego & J. Gilabert, 2005. The ecology of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon: a fast changing ecosystem under human pressure. In Gönenc, E. & J. P. Wolfin (eds), Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton: 392–422.Google Scholar
  67. Ramdani, M., R. J. Flower, N. Elkhiati, M. M. Kraïem, A. A. Fathi, H. H. Birks & S. T. Patrick, 2001. North African wetland lakes: characterization of nine sites included in the CASSARINA project. Aquatic Ecology 35: 281–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ramdani, M., N. Elkhiati, R. J. Flower, J. R. Thompson, L. Chouba, M. M. Kraiem, F. Ayache & M. H. Ahmed, 2009. Environmental influences on the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton in North African coastal lagoons. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9678-4.
  69. Randazzo, G., D. J. Stanley, S. I. Di Geronimo & C. Amore, 1998. Human-induced sedimentological changes in Manzala Lagoon, Nile Delta, Egypt. Environmental Geology 36: 235–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rasmussen, E. K., O. S. Petersen, J. R. Thompson, R. J. Flower & M. H. Ahmed, 2009a. Hydrodynamic-ecological model analyses of the water quality of Lake Manzala (Nile Delta, Northern Egypt). Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9683-7.
  71. Rasmussen, E. K., O. S. Petersen, J. R. Thompson, R. J. Flower, F. Ayache, M. Kraiem & L. Chouba, 2009b. Model analyses of the future water quality of the eutrophicated Ghar El Melh lagoon (Northern Tunisia). Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9681-9.
  72. Saadaoui, M., 1983. Note sur L’hydrologie du Lac de Ghar el Melh. Bureau de l’inventaire et de Recherches Hydrologiques, Tunis.Google Scholar
  73. Shahin, M., 1985. Hydrology of the Nile Basin. Elsevier, Amsterdam.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shindell, D., 2007. Estimating the potential for twenty-first century sudden climate change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A - Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 365: 2675–2694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smart, M., 2002. Wetland conservation and restoration in the Maghreb. In Zalidis, G. C., T. L. Crissman & P. A. Gerakis (eds), Restoration of Mediterranean Wetlands. Hellenic Ministry of the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Athens, Greece and Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre. Thermi: 165–178.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, N., 1994. Water, salt and heat balances of coastal lagoons. In Kjerfve, B. (ed.), Coastal Lagoon Processes. Elsevier Oceanographic Series 60. Elsevier, New York: 69–102.Google Scholar
  77. Smith, B., 1997. Water: a critical resource. In King, R., L. Proudfoot & B. Smith (eds), The Mediterranean: Environment and Society. Arnold, London: 227–250.Google Scholar
  78. Spaulding, M., 1994. Modeling of circulation and dispersion in coastal lagoons. In Kjerfve, B. (ed.), Coastal Lagoon Processes. Elsevier Oceanographic Series 60. Elsevier, New York: 103–132.Google Scholar
  79. Stanley, D. J., 1996. Nile delta: extreme case of sediment entrapment on a delta plain and consequent coastal land loss. Marine Geology 129: 189–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stanley, D. J. & A. G. Warne, 1993. Nile Delta: recent geological evolution and human impact. Science 260: 628–634.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stora, G., A. Arnoux & M. Galas, 1995. Time and spatial dynamics of Mediterranean lagoon macrobenthos during an exceptionally prolonged interruption of freshwater inputs. Hydrobiologia 300(301): 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tennessee Valley Authority, 1997. Project Document: Lake Manzala Engineered Wetland. Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, USA prepared for United Nations Development Programme, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Thompson, J. R., 2006. The importance of hydrological monitoring for wetland science, management and conservation. Paper presented at the 1st International Conference on Environmental Change in Lakes, Lagoons and Wetlands of the Southern Mediterranean Region (ECOLLAW), Cairo, Egypt, January 4–7 2006.Google Scholar
  84. Thompson, J. R. & C. M. Finlayson, 2001. Freshwater wetlands. In Warren, A. & J. R. French (eds), Habitat Conservation: Managing the Physical Environment. Wiley, Chichester, UK: 147–178.Google Scholar
  85. Thornthwaite, C. W., 1948. An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geographic Review 38: 55–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. UCL, 1994. Hydrology, Vegetation and Human Use of Merja Zerga, Morocco. M.Sc. Conservation Course, Departments of Biology and Geography, University College London, London.Google Scholar
  87. Vadineanu, A., 2005. Identification of the lagoon ecosystems. In Gönenc, E. & J. P. Wolfin (eds), Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton: 7–41.Google Scholar
  88. Vandenbroeck, J. & B. C. Rafik, 2001. Restoration and development project of south lake of Tunis and is shores. Terra et Aqua 85: 11–21.Google Scholar
  89. Van der Valk, A. G., 2006. The Biology of Freshwater Wetlands. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  90. World Bank/Ministry of Public Works and Water Resources, Egypt. 1992. Northern Sinai Agricultural Development Project Environmental Impact Assessment – Draft. Prepared by Euroconsult, Arnhem, The Netherlands with Pacer and Darwish Engineers, Cairo.Google Scholar
  91. Zalat, A. & S. S. Vildary, 2005. Distribution of diatom assemblages and their relationship to environmental variables in the surface sediments of three northern Egyptian lakes. Journal of Paleolimnology 34: 159–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Thompson
    • 1
  • R. J. Flower
    • 1
  • M. Ramdani
    • 2
  • F. Ayache
    • 3
  • M. H. Ahmed
    • 4
  • E. K. Rasmussen
    • 5
  • O. S. Petersen
    • 5
  1. 1.Wetland Research Unit/Environmental Change Research Centre, UCL Department of GeographyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, Institute ScientifiqueUniversity Mohamed VRabatMorocco
  3. 3.Département de Géographie, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines de SousseCité ErryadSousseTunisia
  4. 4.Department of Marine SciencesNational Authority for Remote Sensing and Space SciencesCairoEgypt
  5. 5.DHI – Water and EnvironmentHorsholmDenmark

Personalised recommendations