, Volume 622, Issue 1, pp 221–232 | Cite as

Environmental science and management of coastal lagoons in the Southern Mediterranean Region: key issues revealed by the MELMARINA Project

  • J. R. Thompson
  • R. J. Flower


Lagoons in the heavily populated, semi-arid coastal zone of the Southern Mediterranean Region exemplify the conflict between human utilisation of water and related resources and aquatic ecosystems. Having recognised the requirement to improve understanding of the functioning of the region’s coastal wetlands, the MELMARINA Project undertook integrated hydro-ecological monitoring and modelling within lagoons in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt. This article highlights some key issues regarding environmental science and management of the region’s coastal lagoons revealed during the course of the project. It stresses the importance of hydrology as a key control upon lagoon functioning and ecosystem dynamics. Hydrological modifications due to water resource management schemes are the cause of many recent changes experienced within lagoons. Linkages between water quality, water availability, human activities and biological characteristics of coastal lagoons are discussed with particular reference to the controls upon vegetation within the MELMARINA lagoons. A series of methodological advances are reviewed which have potential for wider application within coastal lagoons. It is suggested that the use of lagoon sediment for environmental reconstruction can be invaluable, especially when monitoring data are lacking. Recent advances in instrumentation technologies make long-term continuous monitoring more feasible although these approaches can be combined with more traditional site surveys to provide wider spatial coverage at the expense of temporal resolution. Wider spatial coverage can also be achieved through the use of space-borne or aerial remote sensing imagery whilst longer-term trends in site characteristics can be assessed through historical map analyses. Geographical Information Systems, which facilitate the storage and interrogation of large and varied datasets, have enormous potential. Similarly, coupled hydro-ecological models can inform understanding of lagoon functioning and can assess scenarios associated with environmental change or alternative management approaches. The application of integrated, basin-wide approaches to the management of water resources and aquatic ecosystems in the Southern Mediterranean Region is advocated. This includes the application of principles from the EU’s Water Framework Directive. Finally, the need to place management in the context of climate change and associated sea level rise is stressed. Emphasis should be placed on the development of adaptation strategies designed to minimise the effects of these changes.


Coastal lagoons North Africa Mediterranean Hydro-ecological monitoring Modelling Environmental change 



The MELMARINA Project was an International Scientific Cooperation Project funded under the INCO-Med scheme of the EU Framework V programme (Contract number: IC..-CT-2002-10009). The authors of this article, who coordinated the project, thank the other members of the MELMARINA team for their contributions which were instrumental in the success of the project.


  1. Ahmed, M. H., B. M. El Leithy, J. R. Thompson, R. J. Flower, M. Ramdani, F. Ayache & S. M. Hassan, 2009. Application of remote sensing to site characterisation and environmental change analysis of North African coastal lagoons. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9682-8.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Khudhairy, D., J. R. Thompson, H. Gavin & N. A. S. Hamm, 1999. Hydrological modelling of a drained grazing marsh under agricultural land use and the simulation of restoration management scenarios. Hydrological Sciences Journal 44: 943–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allan, T. A., 2000. The Middle East water questionhydropolitics and the global economy. Taurus Academic Publishers, London.Google Scholar
  4. Allan, T. A., 2003. Virtual water—the water, food, and trade nexus. Useful concept or misleading metaphor? Water International 28: 106–113.Google Scholar
  5. Allen, J. I., J. C. Blackford & P. J. Radford, 1998. A 1-D vertically resolved modelling study of the ecosystem dynamics of the middle and southern Adriatic Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 18: 265–286.Google Scholar
  6. Allen, T. R., H. T. Tolvanen, G. F. Ciertel & G. M. McLeod, 2007. Spatial characterization of environmental gradients in a coastal lagoon, Chincoteague Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 30: 959–977.Google Scholar
  7. Anwar, W. A., 2003. Environmental health in Egypt. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 206: 339–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Appleby, P. G., H. H. Birks, R. J. Flower, N. Rose, S. M. Peglar, M. Ramdani, M. M. Kraiem & A. A. Fathi, 2001. Recent environmental change in North African wetland lakes: radiometric dating and recent sediment accumulation rates in sediment cores from nine sites in the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic Ecology 35: 347–367.Google Scholar
  9. Arnell, N. W., 2004. Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14: 31–52.Google Scholar
  10. Ashworth, M., R. Proctor, J. C. Blackford & J. L. Allen, 1999. Coupled marine ecosystem modelling on high-performance computers. In: Proceedings of Parallel CFD 99, 23rd 26th May 1999, Williamsburg, Virginia.Google Scholar
  11. Ayache, F., 1990. The Conservation and Development of Tunisian Wetlands: A Case Study of Grazing at Ichkeul. Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Geography, University College London.Google Scholar
  12. Ayache, F., J. R. Thompson, R. J. Flower, A. Boujarra, F. Rouatbi & H. Makina, 2009. Environmental characteristics, landscape history and pressures on three coastal lagoons in the Southern Mediterranean Region: Merja Zerga (Morocco), Ghar El Melh (Tunisia) and Lake Manzala (Egypt). Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750--008-9676-6.Google Scholar
  13. Bach, H. K., 1992. Ecological modelling describing the seasonal variation on growth and distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) 1. Model Theory and Ecological Modelling 65: 31–51.Google Scholar
  14. Bach, H. K., E. K. Rasmussen & T. Foster, 1998. Eutrophication modelling of a tidally influenced mangrove area in Bali subject to major dredging and reclamation activities. In Brebbia, C. A. (ed.), Environmental Coastal Regions II. WIT Press, Boston: 251–261.Google Scholar
  15. Baker, C., M. Simpson & J. R. Thompson, 2009. Hydrological dynamics I: surface waters, flood and sediment dynamics. In: Maltby, E. B. & T. Barker (eds), The Wetlands Handbook. Blackwells, London, UK (in press).Google Scholar
  16. Barakat, A. O., 2004. Assessment of persistent toxic substances in the environment of Egypt. Environment International 30: 309–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Baretta, J. W., W. Ebenhoh & P. Ruardij, 1995. The European regional seas ecosystem model. A complex marine ecosystem model. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 33: 233–246.Google Scholar
  18. Benblidia, M., J. Margat & D. Vallée, 1997. Water in the Mediterranean Region: Situations, Perspectives and Strategies for Sustainable Water Resources Management. Blue Plan for the Mediterranean, 2nd edn. Regional Activity Centre (BP/RAC), Sophia Antipolis.Google Scholar
  19. Benessaiah, N. & M. Belhaj (eds), 1999. Mediterranean Wetlands Socio-economic Aspects. The MedWet Programme: Conservation and Wise Use of Wetlands in the Mediterranean Basin. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland.Google Scholar
  20. Berlanga-Robles, C. A. & A. Ruiz-Luna, 2002. Land use mapping and change detection in the coastal zone of northwest Mexico using remote sensing techniques. Journal of Coastal Research 18: 514–522.Google Scholar
  21. Birks, H. H., S. M. Peglar, I. Boomer, R. J. Flower & M. Ramdani with contributions from Appleby P. G., A. E. Bjune, S. T. Patrick, M. M. Kraïem, A. A. Fathi & H. M. A. Abdelzahar, 2001. Palaeolimnological responses of nine North African lakes in the Cassarina Project to recent environmental changes and human impact detected by plant macrofossil, pollen, and benthic animal analyses. Aquatic Ecology 36: 405–430.Google Scholar
  22. Biswas, A. K., 1993. Land resources for sustainable agricultural development in Egypt. Ambio 22: 556–560.Google Scholar
  23. Castañeda, C. & J. Herrero, 2005. The water regime of the Monegros playa-lakes as established from ground and satellite data. Journal of Hydrology 310: 95–110.Google Scholar
  24. Chapman, B. & J. R. Turner, 2004. Development of a geographical information system for the marine resources of Rodrigues. Journal of Natural History 38: 2937–2957.Google Scholar
  25. Chergiu, H., E. Pattee, K. Essafi & M. A. Mhamdi, 1999. Moroccan limnology. In Wetzel, R. G. & B. Gopal (eds), Limnology in Developing Countries. SIL Publication, New Delhi: 235–330.Google Scholar
  26. Clemmens, A. J., Z. El-Haddad & T. S. Strelkoff, 1999. Assessing the potential for modern surface irrigation in Egypt. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 42: 995–1008.Google Scholar
  27. Conway, D., 2005. From headwater tributaries to international river: observing and adapting to climate variability and change in the Nile basin. Global Environmental Change 15: 99–114.Google Scholar
  28. Cózar, A., C. M. García, J. A. Gálvez, S. A. Loiselle, L. Bracchini & A. Cognetta, 2005. Remote sensing imagery analysis of the lacustrine system of Ibera wetland (Argentina). Ecological Modelling 186: 29–41.Google Scholar
  29. Davies, T. J., 1994. The Ramsar Convention Manual: A Guide to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland.Google Scholar
  30. Denny, P., 1995. Benefits and priorities for wetland conservation: the case for national wetland conservation strategies. In Cox, M., V. Straker & D. Talyor (eds), Wetlands: Archaeology and Nature Conservation. HMSO, London: 249–274.Google Scholar
  31. EEA, 2006. Priority Issues in the Mediterranean Environment. European Environment Agency Report Number 4/2006. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  32. Finlayson, M., G. E. Hollis & T. Davis, 1992. Managing Mediterranean Wetlands and their Birds. IWRB Special Publication, No. 20, International Waterfowl and Wetlands Research Bureau Slimbridge.Google Scholar
  33. Flower, R. J., 2001. Change, stress, sustainability and aquatic ecosystem resilience in North African wetland lakes during the 20th century: an introduction to integrated biodiversity studies within the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic Ecology 35: 261–280.Google Scholar
  34. Flower, R. J., & J. R. Thompson (eds), 2006. MELMARINA: Monitoring and Modelling Coastal Lagoons: Making Management Tools for Aquatic Resources in North Africa: Final Report. IC..-CT-2002-10009. Environmental Change Research Centre & Wetland Research Unit Department of Geography, UCL, London.Google Scholar
  35. Flower, R. J., & J. R. Thompson, 2009. An overview of integrated hydro-ecological studies in the MELMARINA Project: monitoring and modelling coastal lagoons—making management tools for aquatic resources in North Africa. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9674-8.Google Scholar
  36. Flower, R. J., P. G. Appleby, J. R. Thompson, M. H. Ahmed, M. Ramdani, L. Chouba, N. Rose, R. Rochester, F. Ayache, M. M. Kraiem, N. Elkhiati, S. El Kafrawy, H. Yang & E. K. Rasmussen, 2009. Sediment distribution and accumulation in lagoons of the Southern Mediterranean region (the MELMARINA Project) with special reference to environmental change and aquatic ecosystems. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9677-5.Google Scholar
  37. French, J. R. & N. J. Clifford, 2000. Hydrodynamic modelling as a basis for explaining estuarine environmental dynamics: some computational and methodological issues. Hydrological Processes 14: 2089–2108.Google Scholar
  38. Gönenc, I. E. & J. P. Wolfin (eds), 2005. Coastal Lagoons: Ecosystem Processes and Modeling for Sustainable Use and Development. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  39. Grapes, T. R., C. Bradley & G. E. Petts, 2006. Hydrodynamics of floodplain wetlands in a chalk catchment: The River Lambourn, UK. Journal of Hydrology 320: 324–341.Google Scholar
  40. Green, A. J., I. El Hamzaoui, M. A. El Agbani & J. Franchimont, 2002. The conservation status of Moroccan wetlands with particular reference to water birds and to changes since 1978. Biological Conservation 104: 71–82.Google Scholar
  41. Guillaume, B. & A. Comeau (eds), 2005. A Sustainable Future for the Mediterranean: The Blue Plan’s Environment and Development Outlook. Earthscan, London.Google Scholar
  42. Hammersmark, C. T., W. E. Fleenor & S. G. Schladow, 2005. Simulation of flood impact and habitat extent for a tidal freshwater marsh restoration. Ecological Engineering 25: 137–152.Google Scholar
  43. Haynes, D., P. Gell, J. Tibby, G. Hancock & P. Goonman, 2007. Against the tide: the freshening of naturally saline coastal lakes, southeastern Australia. Hydrobiologia 591: 165–183.Google Scholar
  44. Haywood, V. H. (ed.), 1995. Global Biodiversity Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  45. Heegaard, E., H. H. Birks, C. E. Gibson, S. J. Smith & S. Wolfe-Murphy, 2001. Species-environmental relationships of aquatic macrophytes in Northern Ireland. Aquatic Botany 70: 175–223.Google Scholar
  46. Hess, L. L., J. M. Melack, E. M. L. M. Novo, C. C. F. Barbosa & M. Gastil, 2003. Dual-season mapping of wetland inundation and vegetation for the central Amazon basin. Remote Sensing of Environment 87: 404–428.Google Scholar
  47. Hollis, G. E., 1992. Implications of climatic changes in the Mediterranean basin: Garaet El Ichkeul and Lac de Bizerte, Tunisia. In Jeftic, L., J. D. Milliman & G. Sestine (eds), Climatic Change and the Mediterranean. Edward Arnold, London: 603–665.Google Scholar
  48. Hollis, G. E. & J. R. Thompson, 1998. Hydrological data for wetland management. Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management 12: 9–17.Google Scholar
  49. Hughes, J. M. R., F. Ayache, G. E. Hollis, F. Mamouri, C. Avis, C. Giansante & J. R. Thompson, 1997. A Preliminary Inventory of Tunisian Wetlands. Report to EEC (DG XII). Ramsar Bureau and US Fish and Wildlife Service. Wetland Research Unit, Department of Geography, University College London, London.Google Scholar
  50. Humborg, C., V. Ittekot, A. Cociasu & B. Bodungen, 1997. Effect of Danube River dam on Black Sea biogeochemistry and ecosystem structure. Nature 386: 385–388.Google Scholar
  51. IPPC, 2007. Climate Change 2007—The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva.Google Scholar
  52. Jeppesen, E., M. Sondergaard, M. Sondergaard & K. Christoffersen (eds), 1997. The Structuring Role of Submerged Macrophytes in Lakes. Ecological Studies, Vol. 131. Spinger-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Jobbins, G., 2003. The effects of stakeholder interactions on capacity for integrated coastal governance in Morocco and Tunisia. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 6: 455–464.Google Scholar
  54. Kalivas, D. P., V. J. Kollias & G. Karantounias, 2003. A GIS for the assessment of the spatio-temporal changes of the Kotychi Lagoon, western Peloponnese, Greece. Water Resources Management 17: 19–36.Google Scholar
  55. Kennish, M. J. (ed.), 2000. Estuary Restoration and Maintenance. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  56. Kent, B. J. & J. N. Mast, 2005. Wetland change analysis of San Dieguito Lagoon, California, USA: 1928–1994. Wetlands 25: 780–787.Google Scholar
  57. Khedr, A. H., 1997. Aquatic macrophytes distributions in Lake Manzala. International Journal of Salt Lake Research 5: 221–239.Google Scholar
  58. Khedr, A. H. & J. Lovett-Doust, 2000. Determinants of floristic diversity and vegetation composition on the islands of Lake Burollos, Egypt. Applied Vegetation Science 3: 147–156.Google Scholar
  59. Kingsford, R. T. & K. M. Auld, 2005. Waterbird breeding and environmental flow management in the Macquarie Marshes, arid Australia. Rivers Research and Applications 21: 187–200.Google Scholar
  60. Kingsford, R. T., A. D. Lemly & J. R. Thompson, 2006. Impacts of dams, river management and diversions on desert rivers. In Kingsford, R. T. (ed.), Ecology of Desert Rivers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 203–247.Google Scholar
  61. Kjerfve, B. (ed.), 1994. Coastal Lagoon Processes. Elsevier Oceanography Series 60. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  62. Kraïem, M. M., L. Chouba, M. Ramdani, M. H. Ahmed, J. R. Thompson & R. J. Flower, 2009. The fish fauna of three North African lagoons: specific inventories, ecological status and production. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9679-3.Google Scholar
  63. Lehmann, A. & J. B. Lachavanne, 1997. Geographical information systems and remote sensing in aquatic botany. Aquatic Botany 58: 195–207.Google Scholar
  64. Lemly, A. D., R. T. Kingsford & J. R. Thompson, 2000. Irrigated agriculture and wildlife conservation: conflict on a global scale. Environmental Management 25: 485–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Livingstone, R. J., 2001. Eutrophication Processes in Coastal Systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  66. Lynch, D. R. & F. E. Werner, 1991. Three dimensional finite elements. Part II. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 12: 507–533.Google Scholar
  67. Maheu-Giroux, M. & S. de Blois, 2005. Mapping the invasive species Phragmites australis in linear wetland corridors. Aquatic Botany 83: 310–320.Google Scholar
  68. Mailhol, J. C., M. Priol & M. Benali, 1999. A furrow irrigation model to improve irrigation practices in the Gharb valley of Morocco. Agricultural Water Management 42: 65–80.Google Scholar
  69. Mangiarotti, S., 2007. Coastal sea level trends from TOPEX-Poseidon satellite altimetry and tide gauge data in the Mediterranean Sea during the 1990s. Geophysical Journal International 170: 132–144.Google Scholar
  70. Manly, B. F. J., 2001. Statistical Environmental Science and Management. Chapman & Hall/CRC, London.Google Scholar
  71. Mitsch, W. J. & J. G. Gosselink, 2000. Wetlands, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  72. Monteith, D. T. & C. D. Evans (eds), 2000. UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network: 10 Year Report. Ensis Publishing, London.Google Scholar
  73. Murray-Hudson, M., P. Wolski & S. Ringrose, 2006. Scenarios of the impact of local and upstream changes in climate and water use on hydro-ecology in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Hydrology 331: 73–84.Google Scholar
  74. Nakamura, F., S. Kameyama & S. Mizugaki, 2004. Rapid shrinkage of Kushiro Mire, the largest mire in Japan, due to increased sedimentation associated with land-use development in the catchment. Catena 55: 213–229.Google Scholar
  75. Nicholls, R. J., 2004. Coastal flooding and wetland loss in the 21st Century: changes under the SRES climate and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environmental Change 14: 69–86.Google Scholar
  76. Nicholls, R. J. & F. M. J. Hoozemans, 1996. The Mediterranean: vulnerability to coastal implications of’ climate change. Ocean and Coastal Management 31: 105–132.Google Scholar
  77. Nicholls, R. J., F. M. J. Hoozemans & M. Marchand, 1999. Increasing flood risk and wetland losses due to global sea-level rise: regional and global analyses. Global Environmental Change 9: S69–S87.Google Scholar
  78. Özhan, E. (ed.) 2005. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment. MEDCOAST 05, October 25–29, Kusadasi, Turkey. Medcoast, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.Google Scholar
  79. Pal, S. R. & P. K. Mohanty, 2002. Use of IRS-1B data for change detection in water quality and vegetation of Chilka lagoon, east coast of India. International Journal of Remote Sensing 23: 1027–1042.Google Scholar
  80. Papayannis, T. & T. Salathé, 1999. The Mediterranean Wetlands at the Dawn of the 21st Century. Medwet, Tour du Valat, Arles.Google Scholar
  81. Pearse F., 1996. Wetlands and water resources. In Skinner, J. & A. J. Crivelli (eds), Conservation of Mediterranean Wetlands—MedWet, Series No. 5. Tour du Valat, Arles.Google Scholar
  82. Peck, D. E., D. M. McLeod, J. P. Hewlett & J. R. Lovvorn, 2004. Irrigation-dependent wetlands versus instream flow enhancement: economics of water transfers from agriculture to wildlife uses. Environmental Management 34: 842–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Perez-Ruzafa, A., C. M. Diego, J. Gilabert & J. P. Wolfin, 2005. The ecology of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon: a fast-changing ecosystem under human pressure. In Gönenc, I. E. (ed.), Coastal Lagoons. CRC Press, Boca Racon: 392–421.Google Scholar
  84. Pergent-Martini, C., G. Pergent & E. van der Marrel, 2002. Ecological research for integrated coastal zone management: introduction. Journal of Coastal Conservation 8: 107–108.Google Scholar
  85. Radwan, L., 1998. Water management in the Egyptian Delta: Problems of wastage and inefficiency. Geographical Journal 164: 129–138.Google Scholar
  86. Ragab, R. & C. Prudhomme, 2002. Climate change and water resources management in arid and semi-arid regions: prospective and challenges for the 21st Century. Biosystems Engineering 81: 3–34.Google Scholar
  87. Ramdani, M., R. J. Flower, N. Elkhiati, M. M. Kraïem, A. A. Fathi, H. H. Birks & S. T. Patrick, 2001. North African wetland lakes: characterization of nine sites included in the Cassarina Project. Aquatic Ecology 35: 281–301.Google Scholar
  88. Ramdani, M., N. Elkhiati, R. J. Flower, J. R. Thompson, L. Chouba, M. M. Kraiem, F. Ayache & M. H. Ahmed, 2009. Environmental influences on the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton in North African coastal lagoons. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9678-4.Google Scholar
  89. Ramsar Bureau, 2000. Ramsar Advisory Mission Report No. 41, Ichkeul, Tunisia, Ramsar COP8 DOC.11. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland.
  90. Ramsar Bureau, 2002. Climate Change and Wetlands: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation. Ramsar COP8 DOC.11. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland.Google Scholar
  91. Ramsar Bureau, 2004. The Ramsar Handbook for the Wise Use of Wetlands, 2nd ed. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland.Google Scholar
  92. Rasmussen, E. K., I. S. Hansen, A. C. Erichsen, D. Muhlenstein & J. Dørge, 2000. 3D model system for hydrodynamics, eutrophication and nutrient transport. In Rodriguez, G., M. E. Perez & C. A. Brebbia (eds), Environmental Coastal Regions III. WIT Press, Southampton: 291–300.Google Scholar
  93. Rasmussen, E. K., O. S. Petersen, J. R. Thompson, R. J. Flower & M. H. Ahmed, 2009a. Hydrodynamic-ecological model analyses of the water quality of Lake Manzala (Nile Delta, Northern Egypt). Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9683-7.Google Scholar
  94. Rasmussen, E. K., O. S. Petersen, J. R. Thompson, R. J. Flower, F. Ayache, M. Kraiem & L. Chouba, 2009b. Model analyses of the future water quality of the eutrophicated Ghar El Melh lagoon (Northern Tunisia). Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9681-9.Google Scholar
  95. Reid, M. A. & G. P. Quinn, 2004. Hydrologic regime and macrophyte assemblages in temporary floodplain wetlands: implications for detecting responses to environmental water allocations. Wetlands 24: 586–599.Google Scholar
  96. Scheffer, M., 1998. Ecology of shallow lakes. In Wheeler, B. D., S. C. Shaw, W. J. Fojt & R. A. Robertson (eds), Restoration of Temperate Wetlands. Wiley, Chichester: 1–18.Google Scholar
  97. Schmidt, K. S. & A. K. Skidmore, 2003. Spectral discrimination of vegetation types in a coastal wetland. Remote Sensing of Environment 85: 92–108.Google Scholar
  98. Shindell, D., 2007. Estimating the potential for twenty-first century sudden climate change. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A—Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 365: 2675–2694.Google Scholar
  99. Siegel, F. R., M. L. Slaboda & D. J. Stanley, 1994. Metal pollution loading, Manzala Lagoon, Nile Delta, Egypt: implications for agriculture. Environmental Geology 23: 89–98.Google Scholar
  100. Smart, M., 2002. Wetland conservation and restoration in the Maghreb. In Zalidis, G. C., T. L. Crissman & P. A. Gerakis (eds), Restoration of Mediterranean Wetlands. Hellenic Ministry of the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Athens. Greece and Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre, Thermi: 165–178.Google Scholar
  101. Smith, B., 1997. Water: a critical resource. In King, R., L. Proudfoot & B. Smith (eds), The Mediterranean: Environment and Society. Arnold, London: 227–250.Google Scholar
  102. Smol, J. P., 1994. Paleolimnology: an important tool for effective ecosystem management. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health 1: 49–58.Google Scholar
  103. Somes, N. L. G., W. A. Bishop & T. H. F. Wong, 1999. Numerical simulation of wetland hydrodynamics. Environment International 25: 773–779.Google Scholar
  104. Stanley, D. J., 1996. Nile Delta: extreme case of sediment entrapment on a delta plain and consequent coastal land loss. Marine Geology 129: 189–195.Google Scholar
  105. Stanley, D. J. & A. G. Warne, 1993. Nile Delta: recent geological evolution and human impact. Science 260: 628–634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Thanapakpawin, P., J. Richey, D. Thomas, S. Rodda, B. Campbell & M. Logsdon, 2007. Effects of landuse change on the hydrologic regime of the Mae Chaem river basin, NW Thailand. Journal of Hydrology 334: 215–230.Google Scholar
  107. Thompson, J. R., 2004. Simulation of wetland water level manipulation using coupled hydrological/hydraulic modelling. Physical Geography 25: 39–67.Google Scholar
  108. Thompson, J. R. & C. M. Finlayson, 2001. Freshwater wetlands. In Warren, A. & J. R. French (eds), Habitat Conservation: Managing the Physical Environment. Wiley, Chichester: 147–178.Google Scholar
  109. Thompson, J. R., H. Refstrup Sørenson, H. Gavin & A. Refsgaard, 2004. Application of the coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 modelling system to a lowland wet grassland in Southeast England. Journal of Hydrology 293: 151–179.Google Scholar
  110. Thompson, J. R., R. J. Flower, M. Ramdani, F. Ayache, M. H. Ahmed, E. K. Rasmussen & O. S. Petersen, 2009. Hydrological characteristics of three North African coastal lagoons: insights from the MELMARINA project. Hydrobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10750-008-9680-x.Google Scholar
  111. United Nations, 1992. Earth Summit—Agenda 21: The United Nations Programme of Action from Rio. United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
  112. Vadenbroek, J. & C. Ben Rafik, 2001. Restoration and development project of South Lake of Tunis and its shores. Terra et Aqua 85: 11–21.Google Scholar
  113. Vinals, M. J., A. Vizcauno, J. M. Benavent & S. Romo, 2002. Restoring a coastal wetland: L’Albufera of Vaencia, Spain. In Zalidis, G. C., T. L. Crisman & P. A. Gerakis (eds), Restoration of Mediterranean Wetlands. Ministry of the Environment. Athens and Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre, Thermi: 201–212.Google Scholar
  114. Vincenzi, S., G. Caramori, R. Rossi & G. A. De Leo, 2006. A GIS-based habitat suitability model for commercial yield estimation of Tapes philippinarum in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Sacca di Goro, Italy). Ecological Modelling 193: 90–104.Google Scholar
  115. Vorosmarty, C. J., M. Meybeck, B. Fekete, K. Sharma, P. Green & J. P. M. Syvitski, 2003. Anthropogenic sediment retention: major global scale impact from the population of registered impoundments. Global and Planetary Change 39: 169–190.Google Scholar
  116. Weishar, L. L., J. M. Teal & R. Hinkle, 2005. Designing large-scale wetland restoration for Delaware Bay. Ecological Engineering 25: 231–239.Google Scholar
  117. Williamson, W. D., 2001. Anthropogenic salinization of inland waters. Hydrobiologia 466: 329–337.Google Scholar
  118. Wu, X. & D. Whittington, 2006. Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: a case study of the Nile Basin. Water Resources Research 42: W02417.Google Scholar
  119. Zahar, Y., A. Ghorbel & J. Albergel, 2008. Impacts of large dams on downstream flow conditions of rivers: aggradation and reduction of the Medjerda channel capacity downstream of the Sidi Salem dam (Tunisia). Journal of Hydrology 351: 318–330.Google Scholar
  120. Zalidis, G. C., T. L. Crisman & P. A. Gerakis (eds), 2002. Restoration of Mediterranean Wetlands, Hellinic Ministry of the Environment. Athens and Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre, Thermi.Google Scholar
  121. Zedler, J. B., 2000. Restoring Tidal Wetlands. CRC Press, Baton Raton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wetland Research Unit, UCL Department of GeographyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Environmental Change Research Centre, UCL Department of GeographyUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations