Aquatic Hemiptera community structure in stormwater retention ponds: a watershed land cover approach
- 294 Downloads
Stormwater ponds are increasingly common aquatic habitats whose biotic communities are largely unexplored. As anthropogenic development continues to alter the landscape, watershed land use is gaining recognition for its potential to predict species compositions in aquatic systems. This study reports species composition of five aquatic hemipteran families (Notonectidae, Corixidae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Pleidae) in 28 permanent, artificial stormwater ponds in watersheds with different land covers and associated contaminant input. We hypothesized that land cover variables would be significant drivers of aquatic hemipteran community structure in ponds, and that ponds with a high percentage of agricultural and lawn cover in the watershed would be characterized by the absence of species intolerant of the chemical, physical, and ultimately biotic changes associated with these watersheds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMS) was used to identify dominant gradients of species composition and environmental variables. Pond morphology variables, watershed lawn, watershed agriculture, and predatory fish abundance were each found to have statistically significant correlations with hemipteran community structure. The abundance of Notonecta undulata, the species responsible for creating the largest (ranked) distance in species structure among ponds, was positively correlated with shallow, fishless ponds and independent of land use variables. The abundances of four species of corixids were negatively correlated with watershed agriculture, and hemipteran richness was positively correlated with watershed lawn and negatively correlated with pond surface area. Heirarchical cluster analysis revealed non-random hemipteran species assemblages in which congeneric corixid species tended to co-occur, contradicting traditional niche theory. Since artificial stormwater ponds are chemically different from natural-pond habitat and rapidly increasing in number, knowledge of which insect species are capable of thriving in this environment and their relationship to land use in the watershed is of both environmental and evolutionary interest.
KeywordsNotonectidae Corixidae Lawn Agriculture Land use Anthropogenic change
- Bare, C. O., 1926. Life histories of some Kansas “backswimmers”. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 19: 93–101.Google Scholar
- Chordas III, S. W., E. G. Chapman, P. L. Hudson, M. A. Chriscinske & R. L. Stewart Jr., 2002. New midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae). Entomological News 113: 310–314.Google Scholar
- Clark, L. B. & A. H. Hersh, 1939. A study of relative growth in Notonecta undulata. Growth 3: 347–372.Google Scholar
- Clarke, K. R. & R. N. Gorley, 2006. PRIMER v6: User Manual/Tutorial. Primer-E Ltd., Plymouth, UK.Google Scholar
- Dodson, S. I., 2008. Biodiversity in southern Wisconsin storm-water retention ponds: Correlations with watershed cover and productivity. Lake and Reservoir Management 24.Google Scholar
- England, G., 2001. The use of ponds for BMPs. Stormwater: The Journal for Surface Water Quality Professionals. http://www.forester.net/sw_0107_use.html. Accessed on 9 April 2008.
- EPA, 2008. What is a Pesticide? http://www.epa.gov/pesticides Accessed on 11 April 2008.
- Gilliom, R. J., J. E. Barbash, C. G. Crawford, P. A. Hamilton, J. D. Martin, N. Nakagaki, L. H. Nowell, J. C. Scott, P. E. Stackelberg, G. P. Thelin & D. M. Wolock, 2006. The Quality of Our Nation’s Water—Pesticides in the Nation’s Streams and Ground Water, 1992–2001. Circular 1291. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.Google Scholar
- Gingrich, J., R. D. Anderson, G. M. Williams, L. O’Connor & K. Harkins, 2006. Stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for West Nile virus vectors in Delaware during 2004. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 22: 282–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hancock, G. S. & M. B. Popkin, 2005. Retention Deficit: Evaluating Retention Pond Effectiveness at Controlling Suburban Stormwater Runoff, James City County, Virginia: Eos Trans. AGU, v. 86, p. Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract B43C-0293.Google Scholar
- Hilsenhoff, W. L., 1970. Corixidae (water boatmen) of Wisconsin. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences. Arts and Letters 58: 203–236.Google Scholar
- Hilsenhoff, W. L., 1984. Aquatic Hemiptera of Wisconsin. The Great Lakes Entomologist 17: 29–50.Google Scholar
- Hilsenhoff, W. L., 1995. Aquatic Insects of Wisconsin. Keys to Wisconsin Genera and Notes on Biology, Habitat, Distribution, and Species. Publication #G3648. University of Wisconsin, Natural History Museums Council, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
- Hungerford, H. B., 1948. The Corixidae of the Western Hemisphere (Hemiptera). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 32: 1–827.Google Scholar
- Hutchinson, G. E., 1962. The Enchanted Voyage and Other Studies. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
- Leisnham, P. T., D. P. Slaney, P. J. Lester, P. Weinstein & A. C. G. Heath, 2007. Mosquito density, macroinvertebrate diversity, and water chemistry in water-filled containers: Relationships to land use. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 34: 203–218.Google Scholar
- Lussier, S. M., S. N. da Silva, M. Charpentier, J. F. Heltshe, S. M. Cormier, D. J. Klemm, M. Chintala & S. Jayaraman, 2008. The influence of suburban land use on habitat and biotic integrity of coastal Rhode Island streams. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 139: 119–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCune, B. & J. B. Grace, 2002. Analysis of Ecological Communities. MJM Press, Gleneden Beach, OR.Google Scholar
- McCune, B. and M. J. Mefford, 2006. PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data. Version 5.16 MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, OR, USA.Google Scholar
- PAN Pesticides Database, updated April 2007. http://www.pesticideinfo.org/Index.html.
- Papacek, M., 2001. Small aquatic and ripicolous bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) as predators and prey: The question of economic importance. European Journal of Entomology 98: 1–12.Google Scholar
- Robbins, P. & J. T. Sharp, 2003. Producing and consuming chemicals: The moral economy of the American lawn. Economic Geography 79: 425–451.Google Scholar
- Scott, W. B. & E. J. Crossman, 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada, Bulletin184. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa, ON.Google Scholar
- Svensson, B. G., B. Tallmark & E. Petersson, 2000. Habitat heterogeneity, coexistence and habitat utilization in five backswimmer species (Notonecta spp.; Hemiptera, Notonectidae). Aquatic Insects 22: 81–98.Google Scholar
- USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2000. Summary Report: 1997 National Resources Inventory (revised December 2000). United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/NRI/1997/summary_report/body.html.
- Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 2005. Wisconsin’s Strategy for Wildlife Species of Greatest Conservation Need. Madison, WI. Available at http://dnr.wi.gov/org/land/er/wwap/plan/. Accessed 23 June 2008.