Effects of water-depth and water-level fluctuations on the macroinvertebrate community structure in the littoral zone of Lake Constance
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In a 2-year field study, abundance, biomass and community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates and their seasonal dynamics were assessed along the depth gradient in the stony littoral zone of Lake Constance, Central Europe. The macroinvertebrate community patterns differed significantly between the depth zones, partly because of species turnover, but mostly as a result of different dominance structures. These distinct differences should be considered when designing surveys of benthic invertebrates also for applied purposes, since sources of variation should be kept small and particularly on hard substrates, extensive efforts are required to obtain sufficient data for a powerful statistical analysis. A large seasonal variability in the macroinvertebrate communities of the eulittoral zone indicates a strong influence of physical disturbances, particularly of water-level fluctuations. The community pattern of the drift line samples was influenced by the previous development of the water level. The cumulated water-level fluctuations and their net tendency accounted for three quarters of the variation in a PCA. Since Lake Constance is the only large pre-alpine lake whose water level is not extensively regulated, the uniqueness of the littoral community should have implications for nature conservation measures.
KeywordsBenthos Vertical gradient Ordination Dreissena polymorpha
We thank C. Fiek, the members of the scientific diving group of the Limnological Institute of the University of Konstanz (P. Fischer, O. Walenciak, T. Jankowski, M. Wolf, E. Gross and K. Pohlmann), and H. Goldschmidt, S. Röck, C. Kienle, M. Korn, and C. Danzer for assistance in the field and in the laboratory. Many thanks to Karen Brune for editing the English and to Eva Leu and Karl-Matthias Wantzen for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This study was supported by the DFG within the collaborative research centre 454 “Lake Constance Littoral”.
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