, Volume 607, Issue 1, pp 11–16 | Cite as

A comparison between local emergence patterns of Perla grandis and Perla marginata (Plecoptera, Perlidae)

  • Stefano FenoglioEmail author
  • Tiziano Bo
  • José Manuel Tierno de Figueroa
  • Manuel Jesus López-Rodríguez
  • Giorgio Malacarne
primary research paper


In this study we investigated the emergence patterns of two Systellognatha stoneflies: Perla marginata and P. grandis (Plecoptera: Perlidae) in a first order stream of the Northern Apennines (NW Italy). Exuviae of both species were collected in a selected area of the Curone creek by hand-picking, measuring the distance between river edge and substrate typology. Exuviae were found on different substrate types near the shoreline: stones in the stream bank were mainly used by both species, and gravel beach was the least-utilised substrate. No evident differences were found between the species in the typology and colour of emergence substrates. Interestingly, we found that P. grandis exuviae were significantly located at greater horizontal and vertical distances from the water edge than P. marginata ones. We discuss these findings on the basis of ecological and behavioural considerations.


Plecoptera Perla marginata Perla grandis Exuviae Emergence patterns 



We are grateful to M. Grenna, S. Giordanengo, M. Cammarata and D. Vigani for the help in field work, and to G. Lingua for the useful suggestions and floristic help.


  1. Alexander, H. D. & K. W. Stewart, 1996. Description and theoretical considerations of mate-finding and other adult behaviours in a Colorado population of Claassenia sabulosa (Plecoptera, Perlidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 89: 290–296.Google Scholar
  2. Berthélemy, C., 1979. Mating call and taxonomy in Pyrenean Isoperla. Gewässer und Abwässer 64: 71–72.Google Scholar
  3. Bo, T., S. Fenoglio & G. Malacarne, 2007. Diet of Dinocras cephalotes and Perla marginata (Plecoptera, Perlidae) in an Apenninic stream (Orbarina, NW Italy). The Canadian Entomologist 139: 358–364.Google Scholar
  4. Bukantis, R. T. & B. L. Peckarsky, 1985. Observations on the emergence and habits of adults of Agnetina capitata and Acroneuria carolinensis (Plecoptera: Perlidae). American Midland Naturalist 114: 200–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Consiglio, C., 1980. Plecotteri, Guide per il riconoscimento delle specie animali delle acque interne italiane. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Ed., Roma, Italy.Google Scholar
  6. Elliott, J. M., 1991. The effect of temperature on egg hatching for three populations of Perla bipunctata (Plecoptera: Perlidae). Entomological Gazzette 42: 99–103.Google Scholar
  7. Fenoglio, S., T. Bo, M. Pessino & G. Malacarne, 2007. Feeding of Perla grandis nymphs (Plecoptera: Perlidae) in an Apennine first order stream (Rio Berga, NW Italy). Annales de la Societé Entomologique de France 43: 221–224.Google Scholar
  8. Fenoglio, S. & J. M. Tierno de Figueroa, 2003. Observations on the adult feeding of some Neoperla and Anacroneuria species (Plecoptera, Perlidae). African Entomology 11: 138–139.Google Scholar
  9. Flannagan, J. F. & D. G. Cobb, 1991. Emergence of stoneflies (Plecoptera) from the Roseau river, Manitoba. American Midland Naturalist 125: 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghetti, P. F., 1997. Manuale per l’applicazione dell’Indice Biotico Esteso. Provincia Autonoma di Trento Ed., Trento, Italy.Google Scholar
  11. Gregory, J. S., S. S. Beesley & R. W. Van Kirk, 2000. Effect of springtime water temperature on the time of emergence and size of Pteronarcys californica in the Henry’s Fork catchment, Idaho, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 45: 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanada, S., Y. Isobe & T. Oishi, 1997. Emergence sites as mate-encounter locations in Microperla brevicauda Kawai (Plecoptera, Peltoperlidae). In Landolt, P. & M. Sartori (eds), Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera: Biology, Ecology, Systematics. MTL Ed., Fribourg, France.Google Scholar
  13. Hynes, H. B. N., 1976. Biology of Plecoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 21: 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jáimez-Cuéllar, P. & J. M. Tierno de Figueroa, 2005. Local emergence distribution patterns in Dinocras cephalotes (Plecoptera, Perlidae). Biologia, Bratislava 60: 539–543.Google Scholar
  15. Resh, V. H. & D. M. Rosenberg, 1984. The Ecology of Aquatic Insects. Praeger, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Rupprecht, R., 1968. Das trommeln der Plecopteren. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Physiologie 59: 38–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rupprecht, R., 1969. Zur Artspezifitaf der Trommelsignale der Plecopteren (Insecta). Oikos 20: 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rupprecht, R., 1990. Can adult stoneflies utilize what they eat? In Campbell, C. (ed.), Mayflies and Stoneflies: Life Histories and Biology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  19. StatSoft Inc., 2005. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 7.1.
  20. Stewart, K. W., 1994. Theoretical considerations of mate finding and others adult behaviors of Plecoptera. Aquatic Insects 16: 95–104.Google Scholar
  21. Stewart, K. W., 1997. Vibrational communication in insects. Epistome in the language of Stoneflies? American Entomology 43: 81–91.Google Scholar
  22. Stewart, K. W., 2001. Vibrational communication (drumming) and mate-searching behavior of stoneflies (Plecoptera): evolutionary considerations. In Dominguez, E. (ed.), Trends in Research in Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  23. Tierno de Figueroa, J. M. & R. Fochetti, 2001. On the adult feeding of several European stoneflies (Plecoptera). Entomological News 112: 130–134.Google Scholar
  24. Tierno de Figueroa, J. M., J. M. Luzón-Ortega & A. Sánchez-Ortega, 1998. Imaginal biology of Hemimelaena flaviventris (Pictet, 1841) (Plecoptera, Perlodidae). Annales Zoologici Fennici 35: 225–230.Google Scholar
  25. Tierno de Figueroa, J. M., J. M. Luzón-Ortega & A. Sánchez-Ortega, 2000a. Male calling, mating and oviposition in Isoperla curtata (Plecoptera, Perlodidae). European Journal of Entomology 97: 171–175.Google Scholar
  26. Tierno de Figueroa, J. M., J. A. Palomino-Morales & J. M. Luzón-Ortega, 2000b. Spatial distribution in river banks of Isoperla nevada (Plecoptera, Perlodidae), Chloroperla nevada (Plecoptera, Chloroperlidae) and Sericostoma cf. vittatum (Trichoptera, Sericostomatidae). Italian Journal of Zoology 67: 355–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tierno de Figueroa, J. M. & A. Sánchez-Ortega, 1999. Imaginal feeding of certain Systellognathan stonefly species (Insecta: Plecoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92: 218–221.Google Scholar
  28. Tierno de Figueroa, J. M., A. Sánchez-Ortega, P. Membiela-Iglesia & J. M. Luzón-Ortega, 2003. Plecoptera. Fauna Ibérica, Vol. 22. CSIC Publ., Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
  29. Watanabe, N. C., I. Mori & I. Yoshitaka, 1999. Effect of water temperature on the mass emergence of the mayfly, Ephoron shigae, in a Japanese river (Ephemeroptera: Polymitarcyidae). Freshwater Biology 41: 537–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zeigler, D. D., 1990. Observations pertinent to the role of sexual selection in the stonefly Pteronarcella badia (Plecoptera: Pteronarcyidae). Entomological News 101: 283–287.Google Scholar
  31. Zeigler, D. D., 1991. Passive choice and possible mate guarding in the stonefly Pteronarcella badia (Plecoptera: pteronarcyidae). Florida Entomologist 74: 335–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zwick, P., 1980. Plecoptera (Steinfliegen). In Helmcke, J. G., D. Starck & H. Wermuth (eds), Handbuch der Zoologie. Walter de Gruyter Publ., Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Fenoglio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tiziano Bo
    • 1
  • José Manuel Tierno de Figueroa
    • 2
  • Manuel Jesus López-Rodríguez
    • 2
  • Giorgio Malacarne
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Ambiente e della VitaUniversità del Piemonte OrientaleAlessandriaItaly
  2. 2.Departamento de Biología AnimalUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations