Hydrobiologia

, Volume 595, Issue 1, pp 393–407 | Cite as

Global diversity of caddisflies (Trichoptera: Insecta) in freshwater

FRESHWATER ANIMAL DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT

Abstract

The not yet uploaded Trichoptera World Checklist (TWC) [http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/search.htm], as at July 2006, recorded 12,627 species, 610 genera and 46 families of extant and in addition 488 species, 78 genera and 7 families of fossil Trichoptera. An analysis of the 2001 TWC list of present-day Trichoptera diversity at species, generic/subgeneric and family level along the selected Afrotropical, Neotropical, Australian, Oriental, Nearctic and Palaearctic (as a unit or assessed as Eastern and Western) regions reveals uneven distribution patterns. The Oriental and Neotropical are the two most species diverse with 47–77% of the species in widespread genera being recorded in these two regions. Five Trichoptera families comprise 55% of the world’s species and 19 families contain fewer than 30 species per family. Ten out of 620 genera contain 29% of the world’s known species. Considerable underestimates of Trichoptera diversity for certain regions are recognised. Historical processes in Trichoptera evolution dating back to the middle and late Triassic reveal that the major phylogenetic differentiation in Trichoptera had occurred during the Jurrasic and early Cretaceous. The breakup of Gondwana in the Cretaceous led to further isolation and diversification of Trichoptera. High species endemism is noted to be in tropical or mountainous regions correlated with humid or high rainfall conditions. Repetitive patterns of shared taxa between biogeographical regions suggest possible centres of origin, vicariant events or distribution routes. Related taxa associations between different regions suggest that an alternative biogeographical map reflecting Trichoptera distribution patterns different from the Wallace (The Geographical Distribution of Animals: With a Study of the Relations of Living and Extinct Faunas as Elucidating the Past Changes of the Earth’s Surface, Vol. 1, 503 pp., Vol. 2, 607 pp., Macmillan, London, 1876) proposed biogeography patterns should be considered. Anthropogenic development threatens biodiversity and the value of Trichoptera as important functional components of aquatic ecosystems, indicator species of deteriorating conditions and custodians of environmental protection are realised.

Keywords

Caddisflies Biogeography Fossil-record Endemism Environmental protection 

References

  1. Ansorge, J., 2002. Revision of the “Trichoptera” described by Geinitz and Handlirsch from the Lower Toarcian of Dobbertin (Germany) based on new material. In Mey, W. (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Nova Supplementa Entomologica. Goecke & Evers, Keltern, 15: 55–74.Google Scholar
  2. Botosaneanu, L., 1981. Ordo Trichoptera et Homo insapiens. In Moreti, G. P. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, 11–19.Google Scholar
  3. Botosaneanu, L. & W. Wichard, 1981. Trichoptera from the Baltic Amber. In Moreti, G. P. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, 31–32.Google Scholar
  4. Botosaneanu, L. & W. Wichard, 1983. Upper Cretaceous Siberian and Canadian amber caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera). Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 53: 187–217.Google Scholar
  5. Cummins, K. W., 1973. Trophic relations of aquatic insects. Annual Review of Entomology 18: 183–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Moor, F. C., 1992. Parasites, generalist and specialist predators and their role in limiting the population size of blackflies and in particular Simulium chutteri Lewis (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Vaal River, South Africa. Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums (Natural History) 18(13): 271–291.Google Scholar
  7. de Moor, F. C., 2002a. An assessment of the global distribution of Leptocerinae (Trichoptera) and use of larval characters for determining phylogenetic relationships. In Mey, W. (ed.), Proceedings of the10th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Nova Supplementa Entomologica. Goecke & Evers, Keltern, 15: 293–308.Google Scholar
  8. de Moor, F. C., 2002b. Shortcomings and advantages of using rapid biological assessment techniques for the purpose of characterising rivers in South Africa. Verhandlungen, Internationale Vereinigung fur theoretische und angewandte Limnologie. Stuttgart 28: 651–662.Google Scholar
  9. Eskov, K. Yu., 1984. Continental drift and the problems of historical biogeography. In Tchernov, Yu. I. (ed.), Faunogenesis and phylocenogenesis. Nauka Publishing House, Moscow, 24–92, (in Russian).Google Scholar
  10. Eskov, K. Yu. & I. D. Sukatsheva, 1997. Geographical distribution of the Paleozoic and Mesozic caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera). In Holzenthal, R. W. & O. S. Flint (eds), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio, 95–98.Google Scholar
  11. Eskov, K. Yu., V. D. Ivanov, I. D., Sukatsheva, & A. Wells, 2004. Geographic history of the family Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). In Materialy. II Vserossiyskiy simpozium po amfibioticheskim i vodnym nasekomym. Voronezh, 40–48 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  12. Fischer, F. C. J., 1960–1973. Trichopterorum Catalogus. Amsterdam: Nederlandsche Entomologische Vereeniging, Amsterdam, 15 Vols. & index.Google Scholar
  13. Flint, O. S., Jr., R. W. Holzenthal & S. C. Harris, 1999. Catalog of the Neotropical Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera). Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio, iv + 239 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Frania, H. E. & G. B. Wiggins, 1997. Analysis of morphological and behavioural evidence for the phylogeny and higher classification of Trichoptera (Insecta). Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Contributions 160. ROM Publications in Life Sciences, Ontario, 68 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Gibon, F.-M., D. Randriamasimanana, & Z. Randriambelo, 2001. Ordre Trichoptera. In Elouard, J.-M. & F.-M. Gibon (eds), Biodiversité et biotypologie des eaux continentales de Madagascar, 141–195.Google Scholar
  16. Hannaford, M. L. & V. H. Resh, 1995. Variability in rapid-bioassessment surveys and habitat assessments in a Northern California stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 14: 430–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hewlett, R., 2000. Implications of taxonomic resolution and sample habitat for stream classification at a broad geographic scale. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 352–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ivanov, V. D., 1997. Rhyacophiloidea: A paraphyletic taxon. In Holzenthal, R. W. & O. S. Flint (eds), Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio, 189–193.Google Scholar
  19. Ivanov, V. D., 2000. Changes of fauna and the problems of Trichoptera protection. In Fauna, problems of ecology, ethology and physiology of the amphibiotic and aquatic insects of Russia. Materials of VI All-Russian Trichopterological Symposium and I All-Russian Symposium on the amphibiotic and aquatic insects. Voronezh State University Voronezh, 19–23.Google Scholar
  20. Ivanov, V. D., 2002. Contribution to the Trichoptera phylogeny: New family tree with consideration of Trichoptera-Lepidoptera relations. In Mey, W. (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Nova Supplementa Entomologica. Goecke & Evers, Keltern, 15: 277–292.Google Scholar
  21. Ivanov, V. D. & I. D. Sukatsheva, 2002. Trichoptera (Phryganeida). In Rasnitsyn, A. P. & L. J. Quicke (eds), History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 199–220.Google Scholar
  22. Kjer, K. M., R. J. Blahnick & R. W. Holzenthal, 2001. Phylogeny of Trichoptera (Caddisflies): Characterization of signal and noise within multiple datasets. Systematic Biology 50(6): 781–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kjer, K. M., R. J. Blahnick & R. W. Holzenthal, 2002. Phylogeny of caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zoologica Scripta 31: 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Levanidova, I. M., 1982. Amphibioticheskie nasekomye gornykh oblastey Dal’nego Vostoka SSSR. Faunistika, Ecologiya, Zoogeograpfiya Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera i Trichoptera. Leningrad, Nauka. Amphibiotic insects of the mountain regions of the Far East of the USSR. Faunistics, ecology, zoogeography of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, (in Russian).Google Scholar
  25. McCafferty, W. P., 1981. Aquatic Entomology. The Fishermen’s and Ecologists’ Illustrated Guide to Insects and Their Relatives. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Inc., Boston, xv + 448 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Malicky, H., 1979. Discussion generale, 2. Limnofaune. In Zoogeography and ecology of Greece and neighbouring regions. Biologia Gallo-Hellenica, 8: 379–386.Google Scholar
  27. Malicky, H., 1983. Chorological patterns and biome types of European Trichoptera and other freshwater insects. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 96(2): 223–244.Google Scholar
  28. Malicky, H., 1986. Die Köcherfliegen (Trichoptera) des Iran und Afghanistans. Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichs Entomologen, 38: 1–16.Google Scholar
  29. Malicky, H., 1993. First speculation on the size of areas and the number of species of caddisflies (Trichoptera) in southeastern Asia. In Otto, C. (ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Trichoptera, 92.Google Scholar
  30. Malicky, H. & F. Sipahiler, 1993. Köcherfliegen (Trichoptera) aus der Türkei, mit bemerkungen zu weiteren mediterranen Köcherfliegen. – Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen entomologischen gesellschaft, 66: 457–478.Google Scholar
  31. Mayr, E., 1942. Systematics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Meyen, S. V., 1987. Fundamentals of Palaeobotany. Chapman and Hall, London, 432 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Morse, J. C., 1997. Phylogeny of Trichoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 42: 427–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Morse, J. C. (ed.), 1999. Trichoptera World Checklist. http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm, effective 22 May 1999, updated 28 July 2000, 8 January 2001.
  35. Morse, J. C., 2003. Trichoptera (Caddisflies). In Resh, V. H. & R. T. Carde (eds), Encyclopedia of Insects. Elsevier, 1145–1151.Google Scholar
  36. Morse, J. C. & L. Yang, 2002. Phylogeny, classification, and historical biogeography of world species of Mystacides (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae), with a new species from Sri Lanka. In Mey, W. (ed.) Proceedings of the10th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Nova Supplementa Entomologica. Goecke & Evers, Keltern, 15: 173–186.Google Scholar
  37. Nishimoto, H., M. Nakabou & K. Tanida, 2002. Identification of Japanese Cheumatopsyche (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) by analysis of cuticular hydrocarbons. In Mey, W. (ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Nova Supplementa Entomologica. Goecke & Evers, Keltern, 15: 205–210.Google Scholar
  38. Ross, H. H., 1956. Evolution and Classification of the Caddisflies. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.Google Scholar
  39. Ross, H. H., 1964. Evolution of caddisworm cases and nets. American Zoologist 4: 209–220.Google Scholar
  40. Ross, H. H., 1967. The evolution and past dispersal of the Trichoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 12: 169–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmid, F., 1984. Essai d’evaluation de la faune mondiale des Trichoptères. In Morse, J. C. (ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Series Entomologica 30. The Hague, 337.Google Scholar
  42. Schmid, F., 1989. Les Hydrobiosides (Trichoptera, Annulipalpia). Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Entomologie, Supplément 59. 154 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Scott, K. M. F. & F. C. de Moor, 1993. Three recently erected Trichoptera families from South Africa, the Hydrosalpingidae, Petrothrincidae and Barbarocthonidae (Integripalpia: Sericostomatoidea). Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums (Natural History) 18(14): 293–354.Google Scholar
  44. Spuris, Z., 1986. Origin of the caddis flies fauna of the East Baltics. Latvijas Entomologs 29: 45–59.Google Scholar
  45. Spuris, Z., 1989. Synopsis of the fauna of the Trichoptera of the USSR. Riga Zinatne, 89 p.Google Scholar
  46. Steyskal, G. C., 1972. The meaning of the term ‘sibling species’. Systematic Zoology 21(4): 446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ulmer, G., 1912. Die Trichopteren des Baltischen Bernsteins. Beitrage zur Naturkunde Preussens. Physikalisch-Okonomischen Gesellschaft zu Konigsberg 10: 1–380.Google Scholar
  48. Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell & C. E. Cushing, 1980. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 37: 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wallace, A. R., 1876. The Geographical Distribution of Animals: With a Study of the Relations of Living and Extinct Faunas as Elucidating the Past Changes of the Earth’s surface, Vol. 1, 503 pp., Vol. 2, 607 pp., Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  50. Ward, J. B., 2003. Checklist of the New Zealand Trichoptera (caddis). National Center for aquatic biodiversity and security. http://www.niwa.co.nz/ncabb.
  51. Weaver, J. S., III, 1984. The evolution and classification of Trichoptera, with a revision of the Lepidostomatidae and a North American synopsis of this family. PhD thesis, Clemson University, Clemson, SC.Google Scholar
  52. Weaver, J. S., III, 1992a. Remarks on the evolution of Trichoptera: A critique of Wiggins and Wichard’s classification. Cladistics 8: 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weaver, J. S., III, 1992b. Further remarks on the evolution of Trichoptera: A reply to Wiggins. Cladistics 8: 187–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weaver, G. B., & J. C. Morse, 1986. Evolution of feeding and case-making behaviour in Trichoptera. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 5: 150–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wiggins, G. B., 1984. Trichoptera, some concepts and questions. In Morse, J. C. (ed.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Series Entomologica 30, The Hague, 1–12.Google Scholar
  56. Wiggins, G. B., 1992. Comments on the phylogeny of pupation behaviour in Trichoptera: A response to weaver. Cladistics 8: 181–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wiggins, G. B., 1996. Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera), 2nd edn. University of Toronto Press, Ontario, 457 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Wiggins, G. B., 2004. Caddisflies, the Underwater Architects. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Buffalo, London, 292 pp.Google Scholar
  59. Wiggins, G. B. & C. R. Parker, 2002. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Yukon, with analyis of the Beringian and Holarctic species of North America. In Danks, H. V. & J. A. Downes (eds), Insects of the Yukon. Biological survey of Canada (Terrestrial Arthropods), Ottawa, 787–866.Google Scholar
  60. Wiggins, G. B. & W. Wichard, 1989. Phylogeny of pupation in Trichoptera, with proposals on the origin and higher classification of the order. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 8: 260–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yang, L. & J. C. Morse, 2000. Leptoceridae (Trichoptera) of the People’s Republic of China. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 64(1–7): 1–311.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Freshwater Invertebrates, Makana Biodiversity CentreAlbany MuseumGrahamstownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Zoology and EntomologyRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Entomology, Faculty of BiologySt. Petersburg State UniversitySt. PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations