Hydrobiologia

, Volume 595, Issue 1, pp 35–40 | Cite as

Global diversity of inland water cnidarians

  • Thomas Jankowski
  • Allen G. Collins
  • Richard Campbell
Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment

Abstract

Global diversity of inland water cnidarians is low, containing <40 species belonging to phylogenetically distinct groups representing independent invasion events: the common and cosmopolitan hydras (12–15 species); the sporadically occurring freshwater medusae (6–16 sp.); the Cordylophorinae (2 sp.); the parasitic Polypodium (1 sp.); the medusae occurring in saline lakes (4 sp.). Freshwater cnidarians inhabit nearly all types of freshwater on all continents (except Antarctica), but only a few species have cosmopolitan distributions. Due to uncertainty in species knowledge, fine scale regions of endemicity are not yet clear.

Keywords

Hydra Polypodium Cordylophora Craspedacusta Distribution Species diversity Freshwater cnidarian 

References

  1. Bouillon, J. & F. Boero, 2000a. The hydrozoa: a new classification in the light of old knowledge. Thalassia Salentina 24: 3–45.Google Scholar
  2. Bouillon, J. & F. Boero, 2000b. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hydromedusae of the world, with a list of the worldwide species. Thalassia Salentina 24: 47–296.Google Scholar
  3. Campbell, R. D., 1987. A new species of Hydra (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from North America with comments on species clusters within the genus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 91: 253–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Collins, A. G., 2002. Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of cnidarian life cycles. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18: 418–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Collins, A. G., P. Schuchert, A. C. Marques, T. Jankowski, M. Medina & B. Schierwater, 2006. Medusozoan phylogeny and character evolution clarified by new large and small subunit rDNA data and an assessment of the utility of phylogenetic mixture models. Systematic Biology 55: 97–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins, A. G., S. Winkelman, H. Hadrys & B. Schierwater, 2005. Phylogeny of Capitata and Corynidae (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in light of mitochondrial 16S rDNA data. Zoological Scripta 34: 91–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Croghan, P. C., 1983. Osmotic regulation and the evolution of brackish- and fresh-water faunas. Journal of the Geological Society London 140: 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dumont, H. J., 1994. The distribution and ecology of the fresh- and brackish-water medusae of the world. Hydrobiologia 272: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Folino, N. C., 2000. The freshwater expansion and classification of the colonial hydroid Cordylophora (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa). In Pederson, J. (ed.), Marine Bioinvasions: Proceedings of the First National Conference, January 24–27, 1999. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant College Program, Cambridge, MA: 139–144.Google Scholar
  10. Holstein, T., 1995. Cnidaria: Hydrozoa. In Schwoerbel, J. & P. Zwick (eds), Süßwasserfauna von Mitteleuropa, Vol. 1–2. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart: 67–101.Google Scholar
  11. Jankowski, T., 2001. The freshwater medusae of the world – a taxonomic and systematic literature study with some remarks on other inland water jellyfish. Hydrobiologia 462: 91–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jankowski, T., T. Strauss & H. T. Ratte, 2005. Trophic interactions of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii. Journal of Plankton Research 27: 811–823.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim, J. H., W. Kim & C. W. Cunningham, 1999. A new perspective on lower metazoan relationships from 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 16: 423–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Raikova, E. V., 2002. Polypodium hydriforme infection in the eggs of acipenseriform fishes. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 18: 405–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schulze, P., 1917. Neue Beiträge zu einer Monographie der Gattung Hydra. Archiv für Biontologie 4: 29–119.Google Scholar
  16. Slobodkin, L. B. & P. E. Bossert, 2001. Cnidaria. In Thorp, J. E. & A. P. Covich (eds), Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press: 135–154.Google Scholar
  17. Stepanjants, S. D., O. A. Timoshkin, B. A. Anokhin & T. A. Napara, 2000. A new species of Pachycordyle (Hydrozoa, Clavidae) from Lake Biwa (Japan), with remarks on this and related Clavid genera. Scientia Marina 64(Suppl. 1): 225–236.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Jankowski
    • 1
  • Allen G. Collins
    • 2
  • Richard Campbell
    • 3
  1. 1.Water Resources DepartmentSwiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag)DubendorfSwitzerland
  2. 2.NMFS, National Systematics Laboratory, National Museum of Natural History, MRC-153Smithsonian InstitutionWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Developmental and Cell BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations