Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, 591:35 | Cite as

Differences in regeneration between hurricane damaged and clear-cut mangrove stands 25 years after clearing

  • J. G. FerwerdaEmail author
  • P. Ketner
  • K. A. McGuinness
Soft-Bottom Near-Shore Ecosystems

Abstract

The effect of human disturbance on mangrove forest may be substantially different from the effects of natural disturbances. This paper describes differences in vegetation composition and structure of five vegetation types in two mangrove areas near Darwin, Australia, 25 years after disturbance. The vegetation in clear-felled forest showed more adult Avicennia marina than in the hurricane-affected forest, and a virtual absence of A. marina juveniles and saplings. This indicates that A. marina will be replaced by other species in the canopy, showing a multi-phase vegetation development in mangrove forest after human disturbance. The mechanism of disturbance and the conditions after clearing therefore affects the vegetation composition for at least 25 years after this disturbance took place.

Keywords

Regeneration Mangroves Long-term Disturbance 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The participation of P. Ketner was financially supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO grant R 84-507). The work by J.G. Ferwerda was financially supported by the Wageningen University Fund, the “Hendrick Muller Vaderlandsch fonds” and the Fund for fundamental research for nature conservation (FONA), and an ARC grant supported K. McGuinness. Research facilities for the project were made available by Charles Darwin University.

References

  1. Anon, 1999. Tide Predictions for Darwin. National Tidal Facility of Australia, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  2. Ball, M. C., 1987. Establishment of mangrove seedlings in relation to salinity. A Workshop on Research and Management, Darwin.Google Scholar
  3. Blanchard, J. & G. Prado, 1995. Natural regeneration of Rhizophora mangle in strip clearcuts in northwest ecuador. Biotropica 27: 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brocklehurst, P. & B. Edmaedes, 1995. Beagle gulf benthic survey report: Mangrove survey of Darwin Harbour Northern Nerritory (N.T.), Darwin, CCNT/NFI project 1994/1995.Google Scholar
  5. Chapman, V. J., 1977. Ecosystems of the World; Wet Coastal Ecosystems. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  6. Clarke, P. J., & W. G. Allaway, 1992. The regeneration niche of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina): Effects of salinity, light and sediment factors on establishment, growth and survival in the field. Oecologia 93: 548–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clarke, P. J. & R. A. Kerrigan, 2002. The effects of seed predators on the recruitment of mangroves. Journal of Ecology 90: 728–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clough, B. F., 1984. Growth and salt balance of the mangroves Avicennia marina (forsk.) vierh. and Rhizophora stylosa griff. In relation to salinity. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 11: 419–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duarte, C. M., O. Geertz-Hansen, U. Tampanya, J. Terrados, M. D. Fortes, L. Kamp-Nielsen, J. Borum & S. Boromthanarath, 1998. Relationship between sediment conditions and mangrove Rhizophora apiculata seedling growth and nutrient status. Marine Ecology Progress Series 175: 277–283.Google Scholar
  10. Dwyer, D. J., 1980. Rapid Creek recreational project. Unpublished report to Department of Lands and Housing Northern Territory of Australia, Darwin.Google Scholar
  11. Ellison, A. M., 2000. Mangrove restoration: Do we know enough? Restoration Ecology 8: 219–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Farnsworth, E. J. & A. M. Ellison, 1997. Global patterns of pre-dispersal propagule predation in mangrove forests. Biotropica 29: 318–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fasham, M. J. R., 1977. A comparison of nonmetric multidimensional scaling, principal components and reciprocal averaging for the ordination of simulated coenoclines, and coenoplanes. Ecology 58: 551–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guinea, M. L., 1987. Rapid Creek mangrove regeneration, thirteen years onward. A Workshop on Research and Management held in Darwin. Australian National University, Darwin.Google Scholar
  15. Hutchings, P. & P. Saenger, 1987. The Ecology of Mangroves. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia.Google Scholar
  16. King, D. M., 1991. Costing out restoration. Restoration and Management Notes 9: 15–21.Google Scholar
  17. Lindquist, E. S. & C. R. Carroll, 2004. Differential seed and seedling predation by crabs: Impacts on tropical coastal forest composition. Oecologia 141: 661–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McGuinness, K. A., 1992. Disturbance and the mangrove forests of Darwin harbour. In Moffatt, I. & A. Webb (eds), Conservation and Development Issues in North Australia. Australian National University Press, 55–62.Google Scholar
  19. McGuinness, K. A., 1997a. Dispersal, establishment and survival of Ceriops tagal propagules in a North Australian mangrove forest. Oecologia 109: 80–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McGuinness, K. A., 1997b. Seed predation in a North Australian mangrove forest; a test of the dominance-predation model. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Osborne, K., & T. J. Smith Iii, 1990. Differential predation on mangrove propagules in open and closed canopy forest habitats. Vegetatio 89: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Perrett, F. P., 1995. The role of propagule features in determining mangrove zonation. Sciences. Northern Territory University, Darwin.Google Scholar
  23. Roth, L. C., 1992. Hurricanes and mangrove regeneration: Effects of hurricane Joan, October 1988, on the vegetation of Isla del Venado, Bluefields, Nicaragua. Biotropica 24: 375–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Salgado-Kent, C. P., 2002. The significance of plant-animal interaction in tropical mangrove forests: How crabs affect structure and production. School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Northern Territory University, Darwin, 296.Google Scholar
  25. Sengupta, R. & B. Middleton, 2005. Landscape characteristics of Rhizophora mangle forests and propagule deposition in coastal environments of Florida (USA). Landscape Ecology 20: 93–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Smith Iii, T. J., 1987a. Effects of seed predators and light level on the distribution of Avicennia marina (forsk.) vierh. in tropical, tidal forests. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 25: 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Smith Iii, T. J., 1987b. Seed predation in relation to tree dominance and distribution in mangrove forests. Ecology 68: 266–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stocker, G. C., 1976. Report on cyclone damage to natural vegetation in the Darwin area after cyclone Tracy, 25 December 1974. Forestry and Timber Bureau, Canberra.Google Scholar
  29. Sukardjo, S., 1987. Natural regeneration status of commercial mangrove species (Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) in the mangrove forest of Tanjung Bungin, Banyuasin district, South Sumatra. Forest Ecology and Management 20: 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wightman, G. M., 1989. Mangroves of the Northern Territory. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin Australia.Google Scholar
  31. Ye, Y., N. F.-Y. Tam, C.-Y. Lu & Y.-S. Wong, 2005. Effects of salinity on germination, seedling growth and physiology of three salt-secreting mangrove species. Aquatic Botany 83: 193–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mathematical and Geospatial SciencesRoyal Melbourne Institute of TechnologyMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Sciences, Resource Ecology GroupWageningen University and Research CentreWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.School of Science and Primary Industries, Faculty of Education, Health and ScienceCharles Darwin UniversityDarwinAustralia

Personalised recommendations