Hydrobiologia

, Volume 584, Issue 1, pp 433–441 | Cite as

The role of temperature in the population dynamics of smelt Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spirinchus Pallas in Lake Peipsi (Estonia/Russia)

  • Andu Kangur
  • Peeter Kangur
  • Külli Kangur
  • Tõnu Möls
Shallow Lakes

Abstract

We analysed lake smelt (Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus m. spirinchus Pallas.) population dynamics in relation to water level and temperature in Lake Peipsi, Estonia/Russia, using commercial fishery statistics from 1931 to 2004 (excluding 1940–1945). Over this period, smelt provided the greatest catch of commercial fish although its stock and catches have gradually decreased. At times, catches of smelt were quite variable with a cyclic character. Disappearance of smelt from catches in years 1973–1975 was the result of summer fish kill. Regression analysis revealed a significant negative effect of high temperature on the abundance of smelt stock, while the effect of water level was not significant. Our results suggest that critical factors for the smelt population are the absolute value of water temperature in the hottest period (≥20°C) of summer and the duration of this period. These weather parameters have increased in synchrony with smelt decline during the last 7 decades. There appeared to be a significant negative effect of hot summers on the abundance of smelt operating with a lag of one and 2 years, which can be explained by the short life cycle (mainly 1–2 years) of this species.

Keywords

Lake smelt Fishery catches Water temperature Large shallow lake 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are indebted to the Estonian Science Foundation (grants 4986, 6008 and 6820). This research was supported by the Estonian target financed project SF 0362483s03.

References

  1. Blenckner, T., 2005. A conceptual model of climate-related effects on lake ecosystem. Hydrobiologia 533: 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Collares-Pereira, M. J. & I. G. Cowx, 2004. The role of catchment scale environmental management in freshwater fish conservation. Fisheries Management and Ecology 11: 303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dorozhkina, T. Ya., 1985. Prichiny kolebanij ulovov pskovskogo i chudskogo snetka. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov GosNIORKh 236: 98–109 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Horppila, J., K. Nyberg, H. Peltonen & T. Turunen, 1996. Effects of five years of intensive trawling on a previously unexploited smelt stock. Journal of Fish Biology 49: 329–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ibarra, A. A., M. Gevrey, Y.-S. Park, P. Lim & S. Lek, 2003. Modelling the factors that influence fish guilds composition using a back-propagation network: Assessment of metrics for indices of biotic integrity. Ecological Modeling 160: 281–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jaani, A., 1996. Hydrology and water balance of Lake Peipsi. Hydrobiologia 338: 11–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jaani, A., 2001a. The location, size and general characterisation of Lake Peipsi and its catchment area. In Nõges T. (ed.), Lake Peipsi: Meteorology, Hydrology, Hydrochemistry. Sulemees Publishers, Tartu: 10–17.Google Scholar
  8. Jaani, A., 2001b. Thermal regime and ice conditions. In Nõges T. (ed.), Lake Peipsi. Meteorology, Hydrology, Hydrochemistry. Sulemees Publishers, Tartu: 65–72.Google Scholar
  9. Jaani, A., 2001c. Water regime. In Nõges T. (ed.), Lake Peipsi. Meteorology, Hydrology, Hydrochemistry. Sulemees Publishers, Tartu: 65–72.Google Scholar
  10. Jobling, M., 2002. Environmental factors and rates of development and growth. In Hart P. J. B. & J. D. Reynolds (eds), Handbook of Fish Biology and Fisheries. Blackwell Publishing: 97–122.Google Scholar
  11. Kangur, A., P. Kangur & E. Pihu, 2002a. Long-term trends in the ichthyocoenosis of Lake Peipsi and L. Võrtsjärv (Estonia). Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 5: 379–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kangur, K., A. Milius, T. Möls, R. Laugaste & J. Haberman, 2002b. Lake Peipsi: changes in nutrient elements and plankton communities in the last decade. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 5: 363–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kangur, K., A. Kangur, P. Kangur & R. Laugaste, 2005. Fish kill in Lake Peipsi in summer 2002 as a synergistic effect of a cyanobacterial bloom, high temperature, and low water level. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Biology Ecology 54: 67–80.Google Scholar
  14. Kangur, K., Y.-S. Park, A. Kangur, P. Kangur & S. Lek, 2006. Patterning long-term changes of fish community in large shallow Lake Peipsi. Ecological Modelling. Available 2 January 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.03.039
  15. Kangur, P., A. Kangur, K. Kangur & T. Möls, 2003. Condition and growth of ruffe Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.) in two large shallow lakes with different fish fauna and food resources. Hydrobiologia 506–509: 435–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kriksunov, E. A. & M. I. Shatunovskij, 1979. Nekotorye voprocy izmenchivosti struktury populjatsii korjushki Osmerus eperlanus (L.). Voprosy ihtiologii 19: 55–62 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  17. Kuderskij, L. A. & G. V. Fedorova, 1977. Snizhenie zapasov snetka v bol´shikh bodoemakh Severo-Zapada Evropejskoj chasti SSSR v 1973–1975 gg. Rybokhozyajstvennoe izuchenie vnutrennikh vodoemov 20: 3–8 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  18. Laugaste, R., T. Nõges, P. Nõges, V. V. Yastremskij, A. Milius & I. Ott, 2001. Algae. In Pihu E. & J. Haberman (eds), Lake Peipsi. Flora and Fauna. Sulemees Publishers, Tartu: 31–49.Google Scholar
  19. Nellbring, S., 1989. The ecology of smelts (genus Osmerus): a literature review. Nordic Journal of Freshwater Research 65: 116–145.Google Scholar
  20. Pihu, E., 1987. Matk kalariiki. Valgus, Tallinn (in Estonian).Google Scholar
  21. Pihu, E., 2003. Lake (dwarf) smelt, Osmerus eperlanus morpha spirinchus Pallas. In Ojaveer E., E. Pihu & T. Saat (eds), Fishes of Estonia. Estonian Academy Publishers, Tallinn: 148–151.Google Scholar
  22. Pihu, E. & A. Kangur, 2001. Fishes and fisheries management. In Pihu E. & J. Haberman (eds), Lake Peipsi. Flora and Fauna. Sulemees Publishers, Tartu: 100–111.Google Scholar
  23. Pronier, O. & E. Rochard, 1997. Working of a smelt (Osmerus eperlanus, Osmeriformes Osmeridae) population located at the south limit of the species distribution area, influence of the temperature. Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture 350–351: 479–497.Google Scholar
  24. Quigley, D. T. G., F. Igoe & W. O’Connor, 2004. The European Smelt Osmerus eperlanus L. in Ireland: general biology, ecology, distribution and status with conservation recommendations. Biology and Environment. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 104B: 57–66.Google Scholar
  25. Sandlund, O. T., Y. G. Stand, G. Kjellberg, T. F. Nǽsje & M. U. Hambo, 2005. European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) eats all; eaten by all: Is it a key species in lakes? Verhandlungen internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnology 29: 432–436.Google Scholar
  26. Sarvala, J., H. Helminen & H. Auvinen, 1999. Portrait of a flourishing freshwater fishery: Pühäjärvi, a lake in SW-Finland. Boreal Environmental Research 3: 329–345.Google Scholar
  27. Semenova, N. I., 1960. The reasons of smelt kill in L. Pskov in August 1959. Nauchno-tekhnicheskij byulleten GosNIORKH 10: 23–24 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  28. Vetemaa, M., A. Järvalt & V. Vaino, 1999. Current status and trends in inland fisheries in Estonia. In Proceeding of Country Report, the 5th Bafico Seminar on Inland Fisheries. Tallinn: 19–28.Google Scholar
  29. Wells, L., 1968. Seasonal depth distribution of fish in south-eastern Lake Michigan. Fisheries Bulleten 67: 1–15.Google Scholar
  30. Winfield, I. J., C. E. Adams & J. M. Fletcher, 1996. Recent introductions of the ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) to three United Kingdom lakes containing Coregonus species. Annales Zoologici Fennici 3–4: 459–466.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andu Kangur
    • 1
  • Peeter Kangur
    • 1
  • Külli Kangur
    • 1
  • Tõnu Möls
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for LimnologyInstitute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life SciencesRannuEstonia

Personalised recommendations