Hydrobiologia

, Volume 584, Issue 1, pp 37–48

Sediment phosphorus cycling in a large shallow lake: spatio-temporal variation in phosphorus pools and release

  • Bryan M. Spears
  • Laurence Carvalho
  • Rupert Perkins
  • Alex Kirika
  • David M. Paterson
Shallow Lakes

Abstract

Sediment and water column phosphorus fractions were recorded monthly for one year (April 2004–April 2005) in a shallow lake recovering from nutrient pollution (Loch Leven, Scotland). Equilibrium phosphate concentration (EPC0) and gross sediment phosphorus (P) release rates were estimated from laboratory experiments. Pore water and organic P pools were lowest during warm water periods whereas bottom water P was lowest during cold water periods. Reductant-soluble, organic, metal oxide-adsorbed, residual and sediment total phosphorus pools all varied significantly with overlying water depth. Short-term, high magnitude, redox initiated P release events occurred in late summer and winter as a result of anoxic sediment conditions. Lower magnitude long-term release conditions were maintained for most of the year, most likely as a result of organic P cycling and maintenance of high concentration gradients between the pore and bottom water P pools. Estimates of summer P uptake/release rates, across an intact sediment-water interface, suggested that maximum gross internal release was ~12 mg SRP m−2 lake surface area d−1 with EPC0 values ranging between 180 and 270 μg P L−1. This study highlights the biological mediation of internal loading in shallow eutrophic lakes, and in particular, the role of sediment algae in decreasing, and sediment bacteria in enhancing, sediment P release.

Keywords

Sediment Phosphorus Mobility Bio-regulation Seasonality 

References

  1. APHA, 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. In Greenberg, A. E., L. S. Clesceri & A. D. Eaton (eds), American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey-Watts, A. E. & A. Kirika, 1999. Poor water quality in Loch Leven (Scotland) in 1995, in spite of reduced phosphorus loading since 1985: the influences of catchment management and inter-annual weather variation. Hydrobiologia 403: 135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbiero, R. P. & J. Kann, 1994. The importance of benthic recruitment to the population development of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and internal loading in a shallow lake. Journal of Plankton Research 16: 1581–1588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boström, B., J. M. Anderson, S. Fleischer & M Jansson, 1988. Exchange of phosphorus across the sediment-water interface. Hydrobiologia 170: 229–244.Google Scholar
  5. Carvalho, L. & A. Kirika, 2003. Changes in shallow lake functioning: response to climate change and nutrient reduction. Hydrobiologia 506–509: 789–796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carvalho, L. & A. Kirika, 2005. Loch Leven 2003: physical, chemical, and algal aspects of water quality. Report to Scottish Natural Heritage. Centre for ecology and hydrology, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  7. Driscoll, C. T., S. D. Effler, M. T. Auer, S. M. Doer & M. R. Penn, 1993. Supply of phosphorus to the water column of a productive hard water lake: controlling mechanisms and management considerations. Hydrobiologia 253: 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farmer, J. G., A. E. Bailey-Watts, A. Kirika & C. Scott, 1994. Phosphorus fractionation and mobility in Loch Leven sediments. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 4: 45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gächter, R. & J. S. Meyer, 1993. The role of microorganisms in mobilization and fixation of phosphorus in sediments. Hydrobiologia 253: 103–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Head, R. M., R. I. Jones & A. E. Bailey-Watts, 1999. Vertical movements by planktonic cyanobacterial and the translocation of phosphorus: implications for lake restoration. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 9: 111–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. House, W. A., T. D. Jickells, A. C. Edwards, K. E. Praska & F. H. Denison, 1998. Reactions of phosphorus with sediments in fresh and marine waters. Soil Use Management 14: 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hwang, C. P., T. H. Lackie & P. M. Huang, 1976. Adsorption of inorganic phosphorus by lake sediments. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 48: 2754–2760.Google Scholar
  13. Jenson, H. S. & F. Ø. Anderson, 1992. Importance of temperature, nitrate, and pH for phosphate release from aerobic sediments of four shallow, eutrophic lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 37: 577–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kamp-Neilson, L., 1975a. Seasonal variation in sediment-water exchange of nutrient ions in Lake Esrom. Verhandlungen internationale der Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie 19: 1057–1065.Google Scholar
  15. Kamp-Nielson, L., 1975b. A kinetic approach to the aerobic sediment-water exchange of phosphorus in Lake Esrom. Ecological Modelling 1: 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Karlson-Elfgren, I., K. Rengefors & S. Gustafsson, 2004. Factors regulating recruitment from the sediment to the water column in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata. Freshwater Biology 49: 265–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Marsden, M. W., 1989. Lake restoration by reducing external phosphorus loading- the influence of sediment phosphorus release. Freshwater Biology 21: 139–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mortimer, C. H., 1941. The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes 1. Journal of Ecology 29: 280–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mortimer, C. H., 1942. The exchange of dissolved substances between mud and water in lakes 2. Journal of Ecology 30: 147–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Paterson, D. M. & K. S. Black, 1999. Water flow, sediment dynamics and benthic biology. Advances in Ecological Research 29: 155–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Penn, M. R., M. T. Auer, S. M. Doerr, C. T. Driscoll, C. M. Brookes & S. W. Effler, 2000. Seasonality in phosphorus release rates from the sediments of a hypereutrophic lake under a matrix of pH and redox conditions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57: 1033–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Perkins, R. G. & G. J. C. Underwood, 2001. The potential for phosphorus release across the sediment-water interface in an eutrophic reservoir dosed with ferric sulphate. Water Research 35: 1399–1406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Perkins, R. G., D. M. Paterson, H. Sun, J. Watson & M. A. Player, 2004. Extracellular polymeric substances: quantification and use in erosion experiments. Continental Shelf Research 24: 1623–1635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pettersson, K., E. Herlitz & V. Istvanovics, 1993. The role of Gloeotrichia echinulata in the transfer of phosphorus from sediment to water in Lake Erken. Hydrobiologia 253: 123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Phillips, G., R. Jackson, C. Bennett & A. Chilvers, 1994, The importance of sediment phosphorus release in the restoration of very shallow lakes (The Norfolk Broads, England) and the implications for biomanipulation. Hydrobiologia 275/276: 445–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Psenner, R., B. Bostrom, M. Dinka, K. Petterson, R. Pucsko & M. Sager, 1988. Fractionation of phosphorus in suspended matter and sediment. Archive für Hydrobiologie. Bieh Ergebnisse der Limnologie 30: 98–103.Google Scholar
  27. Sas, H., 1989. Lake Restoration by Reduction of Nutrient Loading. Academic Verlag, Richarz.Google Scholar
  28. Søndergaard, M., 1989. Phosphorus release from a hypertrophic lake sediment: Experiments with intact sediment cores in a continuous flow system. Archive fùr Hydrobiologie 116: 45–59.Google Scholar
  29. Spears, B. M., L. Carvalho, R. Perkins, A. Kirika & D. M. Paterson, 2006. Spatial and historical variation in sediment phosphorus fractions and mobility in a large shallow lake. Water Research 40: 383–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Underwood, G. J. C. & D. M. Paterson, 1993. Seasonal-changes in diatom biomass, sediment stability and biogenic stabilization in the Severn estuary. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 73: 871–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Van Luijn, F., D. T. Van der Molen, W. J. Luttmer & P. C. M. Boers, 1995. Influence of benthic diatoms on the nutrient release from sediments of shallow lakes recovering from eutrophication. Water Science and Technology 32: 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wetzel, R. G. & G. E. Likens, 2000. Limnological Analyses 3rd edn. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  33. Woodruff, S. L., W. A. House, M. E. Callow & B. S. C. Leadbeater, 1999. The effects of biofilms on chemical processes in surficial sediments. Freshwater Biology 41: 73–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan M. Spears
    • 1
    • 3
  • Laurence Carvalho
    • 1
  • Rupert Perkins
    • 2
  • Alex Kirika
    • 1
  • David M. Paterson
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology and Hydrology EdinburghPenicuikScotland, UK
  2. 2.School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary SciencesCardiff UniversityCardiffWales, UK
  3. 3.Sediment Ecology Research Group, Gatty Marine LaboratoryUniversity of St. AndrewsFifeScotland, UK

Personalised recommendations