, 580:7 | Cite as

Biodiversity issues for the forthcoming tropical Mediterranean Sea

  • Carlo Nike Bianchi
Biodiversity in Enclosed Seas


Present-day Mediterranean marine biodiversity is undergoing rapid alteration. Because of the increased occurrence of warm-water biota, it has been said that the Mediterranean is under a process of ‘tropicalization’. This paper analyses the main patterns of the Mediterranean Sea tropicalization and considers briefly its extent and consequences. As happened during previous interglacial phases of the Quaternary, Atlantic water, entering via the Straits of Gibraltar, carries into the Mediterranean species that are prevalently of (sub)tropical affinity. On the other side of the basin, Red Sea species penetrate through the Suez Canal, a phenomenon called lessepsian migration from the name of F. de Lesseps, the French engineer who promoted the cutting of the Canal. Also the many exotic species introduced by humans voluntarily or involuntarily are nearly always typical of warm waters. Climate change combines with Atlantic influx, lessepsian migration and the introduction of exotic species by humans to the establishment of tropical marine biota in the Mediterranean Sea. Present-day warming ultimately favours the spread of warm-water species through direct and indirect effects, and especially by changing water circulation. It is impossible at present to foresee to what extent the exuberance of warm-water species will affect the trophic web and the functioning of marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea of tomorrow. While Mediterranean Sea communities are modifying their pattern of species composition, they do not seem to be acquiring a more marked tropical physiognomy: Mediterranean coastal marine ecosystems are still dominated by frondose algae (even if the species that are gaining ascendancy are of tropical origin) and not by corals as is normal in tropical seas.


Marine biodiversity Marine biogeography Climate change Species distribution Range extension Mediterranean Sea 



This paper summarises the content of a plenary lecture at the 39th European Marine Biology Symposium. I wish to specially thank the President of the Organising Committee, Prof. Giulio Relini, for inviting me. C. Morri (Genoa) helped in many ways with the preparation of both the presentation and written contribution. K. Hiscock and A. Southward (Plymouth) kindly read an early version of the ms. N. Pinardi (Bologna) and B. B. Manca (Trieste) drew my attention to the eastern Mediterranean climatic transient, and exchange of ideas with M. Astraldi and G. P. Gasparini (La Spezia) helped to let me thinking about its possible biological consequences. M. Sarà and the late E. Tortonese (Genoa) introduced me to marine biogeography, while continued correspondence with G. Giaccone (Catania), P. Wirtz (Madeira), P. Francour, A. Meinesz (Nice), C. F. Boudouresque, P. Chevaldonné, J. G. Harmelin, L. Laubier and H. Zibrowius (Marseille) was source of a wealth of information. I. Faccia (Isola Capo Rizzuto) and P. Panzalis (Carloforte) provided unpublished information. My research on the effects of climate change on Mediterranean marine ecosystems received financial support from the research projects SINAPSI (Seasonal, INterannual and decAdal variability of the atmosPhere, oceanS and related marIne ecosystems) and ‘Ambiente Mediterraneo’ (AdP MURST-CNR, L. 95/95).


  1. Antonioli, F., R. Chemello, S. Improta & S. Riggio, 1999. Dendropoma lower intertidal reef formations and their palaeoclimatological significance, NW Sicily. Marine Geology 161: 155–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arvanitidis, C., G. Bellan, P. Drakopoulos, V. Valavanis, C. Dounas, A. Koukouras & A. Eleftherious, 2002. Seascape biodiversity patterns along the Mediterranean and the Black Sea: lessons from the biogeography of the benthic polychaetes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 244: 139–152.Google Scholar
  3. Astraldi, M., C. N. Bianchi, G. P. Gasparini & C. Morri, 1995. Climatic fluctuations, current variability and marine species distribution: a case study in the Ligurian Sea (north-west Mediterranean). Oceanologica Acta 18(2): 139–149.Google Scholar
  4. Baccetti, B. (ed.), 2003. Marine biogeography of the Mediterranean Sea: patterns and dynamics of biodiversity. Part I. Biogeographia 24: 1–328.Google Scholar
  5. Bellan-Santini, D. & G. Bellan, 2000. Distribution and peculiarities of Mediterranean marine biocoenoses. Biologia marina mediterranea 7(3): 67–80.Google Scholar
  6. Bellan-Santini, D., G. Fredj & G. Bellan, 1992. Mise au point sur les connaissance concernant le benthos profond méditerranéen. Oebalia suppl 17: 21–36.Google Scholar
  7. Bianchi, C. N., 1996. The state of marine biodiversity. In Carrabba, P., L. M. Padovani & F. Mauro (eds), International symposium on Mediterranean biodiversity. Ministero dell’Ambiente and Enea, Rome: 51–61.Google Scholar
  8. Bianchi, C. N., 1997. Climate change and biological response in the marine benthos. Proceedings of the Italian Association for Oceanology and Limnology 12(1): 3–20.Google Scholar
  9. Bianchi, C. N., 2002. Bioconstruction in marine ecosystems and Italian marine biology. Biologia marina mediterranea (2001) 8(1): 112–130.Google Scholar
  10. Bianchi, C. N., 2004. Proposta di suddivisione dei mari italiani in settori biogeografici. Notiziario della Società Italiana di Biologia Marina 46: 57–59.Google Scholar
  11. Bianchi, C. N., M. Abbiati, L. Airoldi, M. Alvisi, L. Benedetti-Cecchi, A. Cappelletti, F. Cinelli, P. Colantoni, P. R. Dando, C. Morri, I. Niccolai, P. Picco, A. Southward & E. Southward, 1998. Hydrology and water budget of a submarine cave with sulphur water spring: the Grotta Azzurra of Capo Palinuro (Southern Italy). Proceedings of the Italian Association for Oceanology and Limnology 12(2): 285–301.Google Scholar
  12. Bianchi, C. N., F. Boero, S. Fraschetti & C. Morri, 2002. La fauna del Mediterraneo. In Argano, R., G. Chemini, S. La Posta, A. Minelli & S. Ruffo (eds), La fauna in Italia. Touring Club Italiano, Milan and Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio, Rome: 247–335.Google Scholar
  13. Bianchi, C. N. & C. Morri, 1993. Range extension of warm-water species in the northern Mediterranean: evidence for climatic fluctuations? Porcupine Newsletter 5(7): 156–159.Google Scholar
  14. Bianchi, C. N. & C. Morri, 1994. Southern species in the Ligurian Sea (northern Mediterranean): new records and a review. Bollettino dei Musei e degli Istituti biologici dell’Università di Genova (1992–1993) 58–59: 181–197.Google Scholar
  15. Bianchi, C. N. & C. Morri, 2000. Marine biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: situation, problems and prospects for future research. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40(5): 367–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bianchi, C. N. & C. Morri C., 2002. La biogeografia marina del Mediterraneo (XXXIV Congresso della Società Italiana di Biogeografia). Notiziario della Società Italiana di Biologia Marina 42: 78–79.Google Scholar
  17. Bianchi, C. N. & C. Morri, 2003. Global sea warming and “tropicalization” of the Mediterranean Sea: biogeographic and ecological aspects. Biogeographia 24: 319–327.Google Scholar
  18. Bianchi, C. N. & C. Morri, 2004a. Uomo, clima e biodiversità marina: esempi dal Mar Ligure. Uomo e Natura 9(1): 15–23.Google Scholar
  19. Bianchi, C. N. & C. Morri, 2004b. Climate change and biological response in Mediterranean Sea ecosystems – a need for broad-scale and long-term research. Ocean Challenge (2003) 13(2): 32–36.Google Scholar
  20. Bianchi, C. N., C. Morri & G. F. Russo, 2003. Deplezione trofica. In Cicogna, F., C. N. Bianchi, G. Ferrari & P. Forti (eds), Grotte marine: cinquant’anni di ricerca in Italia. Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio, Rome, 297–305.Google Scholar
  21. Boero, F., G. Belmonte, S. Bussotti, G. Fanelli, S. Fraschetti, A. Giangrande, C. Gravili, P. Guidetti, A. Pati, S. Piraino, F. Rubino, O. D. Saracino, J. Schmich, A. Terlizzi & S. Geraci, 2004. From biodiversity and ecosystem functioning to the roots of ecological complexity. Ecological Complexity 1(2): 101–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boudouresque, C. F., 2004. Marine biodiversity in the Mediterranean: status of species, populations and communities. Scientific Reports of Port-Cros National Park 20: 97–146.Google Scholar
  23. Boudouresque, C. F. & M. A. Ribeira, 1994. Les introductions d’espèces végétales et animales en milieu marin: conséquences écologiques et économiques et problèmes législatifs. In Boudouresque, C. F., A. Meinesz & V. Gravez (eds), First international workshop on Caulerpa taxifolia. GIS Posidonie, Marseille, 29–103.Google Scholar
  24. Boudouresque, C. F., J. Thommeret & Y. Thommeret, 1980. Sur la découverte d’un bioconcrétionnement fossile intercalé dans l’herbier à Posidonia oceanica de la Baie de Calvi (Corse). In Journées d’étude sur la systématique et la biogéographie de la mer Méditerranée, Cagliari. CIESM, Monaco, 139–142.Google Scholar
  25. Brasseur, P., J. M. Beckers, J. M. Brankart & R. Schoenauen, 1996. Seasonal temperature and salinity fields in the Mediterranean Sea: climatological analyses of an historical data set. Deep Sea Research 42(2): 159–192.Google Scholar
  26. Briand, F. (ed.), 2000. The Eastern Mediterranean climatic transient, its origin, evolution and impact on the ecosystem. CIESM, Monaco, Workshop Series n° 10, 86 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Carrada, G. C., P. Coiro & G. F. Russo (eds), 2003. Le Aree Marine Protette del Mediterraneo. Centro Studi Tegea, Electa, Napoli, 174 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Cerrano, C., G. Bavestrello, C. N. Bianchi, R. Cattaneo-Vietti, S. Bava, C. Morganti, C. Morri, P. Picco, G. Sara, S. Schiaparelli, A. Siccardi & F. Sponga, 2000. A catastrophic mass-mortality episode of gorgonians and other organisms in the Ligurian Sea (North-western Mediterranean), summer 1999. Ecology Letters 3: 284–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chevaldonné, P. & C. Lejeusne, 2003. Regional warming-induced species shift in NW Mediterranean marine caves. Ecology Letters 6: 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chimenz-Gusso, C. & L. Lattanzi, 2003. Mediterranean Pycnogonida: faunistic, taxonomical and zoogeographical considerations. Biogeographia 24: 251–262.Google Scholar
  31. Cocito, S., C. N. Bianchi, C. Morri & A. Peirano, 2000. First survey of sessile communities on subtidal rocks in an area with hydrothermal vents: Milos Island, Aegean Sea. Hydrobiologia 426: 113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cognetti, G. & M. Sarà, 1974. Biologia marina. Calderini, Bologna, 439 pp.Google Scholar
  33. Cognetti, G., M. Sarà & G. Magazzù, 1999. Biologia marina. Calderini, Bologna, 596 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Costagliola, D., D. R. Robertson, P. Guidetti, S. Stefanni, P. Wirtz, J. B. Heiser & G. Bernardi, 2004. Evolution of coral reef fish Thalassoma spp. (Labridae). 2. Evolution of the eastern Atlantic species. Marine Biology 144: 377–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Curini-Galletti, M. & M. Casu, 2003. Species composition and biogeographical relationships of the Proseriata (Platyhelminthes) of the Mediterranean Sea. Biogeographia 24: 115–130.Google Scholar
  36. Diviacco, G. (ed.), 2002. Il santuario dei cetacei: stato attuale e prospettive. Quaderni del Centro Studi sulle Aree protette marine e costiere 1: 1–134.Google Scholar
  37. D’Ortenzio, F., 2004. Space and time occurrence of algal blooms in the Mediterranean: their significance for the trophic regime of the basin. PhD Thesis, Joint program Stazione Zoologica ‘A. Dohrn’ – Open University of London, 298 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Duarte, C. M., 2000. Marine biodiversity and ecosystem services: an elusive link. Journal of experimental marine Biology and Ecology 250: 117–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Emig, C. C. & Geistdoerfer P., 2004. The Mediterranean deep-sea fauna: historical evolution, bathymetric variations and geographical changes. Carnets de Géologie 2004(1): 1–10.Google Scholar
  40. Fine, M., H. Zibrowius & Y. Loya, 2001. Oculina patagonica: a non-lessepsian scleractinian coral invading the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology 138: 1195–1203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fishelson, L., 2000. Marine animal assemblages along the littoral of the Israeli Mediterranean seashore: the Red-Mediterranean Seas communities of species. Italian Journal of Zoology 67: 393–415.Google Scholar
  42. Francour, P., C. F. Boudouresque, J. G. Harmelin, M. L. Harmelin-Vivien & J. P. Quignard, 1994. Are the Mediterranean waters becoming warmer? Information from biological indicators. Marine Pollution Bulletin 28(9): 523–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fredj, G. & G. Giaccone, 1995. Particularités des peuplements benthiques du détroit de Messine. In Guglielmo, L., A. Manganaro & E. De Domenico (eds), The Strait of Messina ecosystem. Dipartimento di Biologia animale ed Ecologia marina, University of Messina, 119–128.Google Scholar
  44. Galil, B. S., 1993. Lessepsian migration: new findings on the foremost anthropogenic change in the Levant basin fauna. In Della Croce, N. F. R. (ed.), Symposium Mediterranean Seas 2000. Istituto di Scienze Ambientali Marine, University of Genova, 307–323.Google Scholar
  45. Galil, B. S. & K. Kevrekidis, 2002. Exotic decapods and stomatopods off Rhodes Island (Greece) and the Eastern Mediterranean Transient. Crustaceana 75(7): 925–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Galil, B., C. Froglia & P. Noel, 2002. CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species, 2 - Crustaceans. CIESM, Monaco, 192 pp.Google Scholar
  47. Garrabou, J., L. Laubier & T. Perez, 2002. Sessile benthic invertebrates as indicators of climate change – mass mortalities in the north-west Mediterranean in summer 1999. Ocean Challenge 12(1): 17–23.Google Scholar
  48. Garrabou, J., T. Perez, S. Sartoretto & J. G. Harmelin, 2001. Mass mortality event in red coral (Corallium rubrum, Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia) populations in the Provence region (France, north-western Mediterranean). Marine Ecology Progress Series 217: 263–272.Google Scholar
  49. Giaccone, G., 2002. Disseminazione antropica di organismi marini nel Mediterraneo durante gli ultimi 3000 anni. Bollettino dell’Accademia Gioenia di Scienze naturali di Catania 35(361): 95–108.Google Scholar
  50. Giaccone, G. & M. Sortino, 1974. Significato biogeografico della vegetazione marina della Sicilia e delle isole minori nell’area del Mare Mediterraneo. Bollettino di Studi ed Informazioni del Giardino coloniale di Palermo 26: 130–146.Google Scholar
  51. Golani, D., L. Orsi-Relini, E. Massutí & J. P. Quignard, 2002. CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species, 1 - Fishes. CIESM, Monaco, 256 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Gómez, F. & H. Claustre, 2003. The genus Asterodinium (Dinophyceae) as a possible biological indicator of warming in the western Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the marine biological Association of the UK 83: 173–174.Google Scholar
  53. Grubelić, I., B. Antolić, M. Despalatović, B. Grbec & G. B. Paklar, 2004. Effect of climatic fluctuations on the distribution of warm-water coral Astroides calycularis in the Adriatic Sea: new records and review. Journal of the marine biological Association of the UK 84: 599–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guidetti, P., C. N. Bianchi, G. La Mesa, M. Modena, C. Morri, G. Sara & M. Vacchi, 2002. Abundance and size structure of Thalassoma pavo (Pisces: Labridae) in the western Mediterranean Sea: variability at different spatial scales. Journal of the marine biological Association of the UK 82: 495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Guidetti, P. & F. Boero, 2001. The occurrence of the Mediterranean parrotfish Sparisoma cretense (L.) (Perciformes, Scaridae) in south-eastern Apulia (SE Italy). Journal of the marine biological Association of the UK 81: 717–719.Google Scholar
  56. Guidetti, P. & F. Boero, 2002. Spatio-temporal variability in abundance of the parrotfish, Sparisoma cretense, in SE Apulia (SE Italy, Mediterranean Sea). Italian Journal of Zoology 69: 229–232.Google Scholar
  57. Harmelin, J. G., 2004. Environnement thermique du benthos côtier de l’île de Port-Cros (parc national, France, Méditerranée nord-occidentale) et implications biogéographiques. Scientific Reports of Port-Cros National Park 20: 97–146.Google Scholar
  58. Harriot, V. J., 1999. Coral growth in subtropical eastern Australia. Coral Reefs 18: 281–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hiscock, K., A. Southward, I. Tittley & S. Hawkins, 2004. Effects of changing temperature on benthic marine life in Britain and Ireland. Aquatic Conservation: marine and freshwater Ecosystems 14: 333–362. .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koukouras, A., E. Voultsiadou, M. S. Kitsos & S. Doulgeraki, 2001. Macrobenthic fauna diversity in the Aegean Sea, affinities with other Mediterranean regions and the Black Sea. Bios 6: 61–76.Google Scholar
  61. Kružić, P. & A. Pozar-Domac, 2003. Banks of the coral Cladocora caespitosa (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) in the Adriatic Sea. Coral Reefs 22(4): 536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kružić, P., H. Zibrowius & A. Pozar-Domac, 2002. Actiniaria and Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from the Adriatic Sea: first records, confirmed occurrences and significant range extensions of certain species. Italian Journal of Zoology 69: 345–353.Google Scholar
  63. Laubier, L., 2001. Climatic changes and Mediterranean marine invertebrates: observation network and ecophysiology. Proceedings of the Italian Association for Oceanology and Limnology 14: 15–23.Google Scholar
  64. Logan, A., C. N. Bianchi, C. Morri & H. Zibrowius, 2004. The present-day Mediterranean brachiopod fauna: diversity, life habits, biogeography and paleobiogeography. Scientia marina 68(Suppl. 1): 163–170.Google Scholar
  65. Logan, A., C. N. Bianchi, C. Morri, H. Zibrowius & G. Bitar, 2002. New records of Recent brachiopods from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Annali del Museo civico di Storia naturale G. Doria, Genova 94: 407–418.Google Scholar
  66. Meinesz, A., T. Belsher, T. Thibaut, B. Antolic., K. Karim Ben Mustapha, C. F. Boudouresque, D. Chiaverini, F. Cinelli, J. M. Cottalorda, A. Djellouli, A. El Abed, C. Orestano, A. M. Grau, L. Ivesa, A. Jaklin, H. Langar, E. Massuti-Pascual, A. Peirano, L. Tunesi, J. de Vaugelas, N. Zavodnik & A. Zuljevic, 2001. The introduced green alga Caulerpa taxifolia continues to spread in the Mediterranean. Biological Invasions 5: 201–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Micheli, C., P. Paganin, A. Peirano, G. Caye, A. Meinesz & C. N. Bianchi, 2005. Genetic variability of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile in relation to local factors and biogeographic patterns. Aquatic Botany 82(3): 210–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mori, M. & M. Vacchi, 2002. On a new occurrence of the alien flat crab, Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards), in the southern Sicily (central Mediterranean Sea) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae). Annali del Museo civico di Storia naturale G. Doria, Genova 94: 295–301.Google Scholar
  69. Morri, C. & C. N. Bianchi, 2001. Recent changes in biodiversity in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean): is there a climatic forcing? In Faranda, F. M., L. Guglielmo & G. Spezie (eds), Structure and processes in the Mediterranean ecosystems. Springer Verlag, Milan, 375–384.Google Scholar
  70. Morri, C., C. N. Bianchi, S. Cocito, A. Peirano, A. M. De Biasi, S. Aliani, M. Pansini, M. Boyer, F. Ferdeghini, M. Pestarino & P. Dando, 1999. Biodiversity of marine sessile epifauna at an Aegean island subject to hydrothermal activity: Milos, Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology 135(4): 729–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Morri, C., A. Peirano & C. N. Bianchi, 2001. Is the Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa an indicator of climatic change? Archivio di Oceanografia e Limnologia 22: 139–144.Google Scholar
  72. Morri, C., A. Peirano, C. N. Bianchi & R. Rodolfo-Metalpa, 2000b. Cladocora caespitosa: a colonial zooxanthellate Mediterranean coral showing constructional ability. Reef Encounter 27: 22–25.Google Scholar
  73. Morri, C., A. Peirano, C. N. Bianchi & M. Sassarini, 1994. Present-day bioconstructions of the hard coral, Cladocora caespitosa (L.) (Anthozoa, Scleractinia), in the eastern Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). Biologia marina mediterranea 1(1): 371–372.Google Scholar
  74. Morri, C., D. Vafidis, A. Peirano, C. C. Chintiroglou & C. N. Bianchi, 2000a. Anthozoa from a subtidal hydrothermal area of Milos Island (Aegean Sea), with notes on the construction potential of the scleractinian coral Madracis pharensis. Italian Journal of Zoology 67: 319–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Noël, P., 2003. Les crustacés du Parc National de Port-Cros et de la région des îles d’Hyères (Méditerranée), France. État actuel des connaissances. Scientific Reports of Port-Cros National Park 19: 135–306.Google Scholar
  76. Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A., 2001. Transfer of marine organisms: a challenge to the conservation of coastal biocoenoses. Aquatic Conservation: marine and freshwater Ecosystems 11(4): 243–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Occhipinti Ambrogi, A. & D. Savini, 2003. Bioinvasions as a component of global change in stressed marine ecosystem. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(5): 542–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pansini, M. & C. Longo, 2003. A review of the Mediterranean Sea sponge biogeography with, in appendix, a list of the demosponges hitherto recorded from this sea. Biogeographia 24: 251–262.Google Scholar
  79. Peirano, A., C. Morri & C. N. Bianchi, 1999. Skeleton growth and density pattern of the temperate, zooxanthellate scleractinian Cladocora caespitosa from the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). Marine Ecology Progress Series 185: 195–201.Google Scholar
  80. Peirano, A., C. Morri, C. N. Bianchi, J. Aguirre, F. Antonioli, G. Calzetta, L. Carobene, G. Mastronuzzi & P. Orrù, 2004. The Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa: a proxy for past climate fluctuations? Global and planetary Change 40: 195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Peirano, A., C. Morri, C. N. Bianchi & R. Rodolfo Metalpa, 2001. Biomass, carbonate standing stock and production of the Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa (L.). Facies 44: 75–80.Google Scholar
  82. Peirano, A., C. Morri, G. Mastronuzzi, C. N. Bianchi, 1998. The coral Cladocora caespitosa (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) as a bioherm builder in the Mediterranean Sea. Memorie descrittive della Carta geologica d’Italia (1994) 52: 59–74.Google Scholar
  83. Peirano, A., R. Rodolfo Metalpa, C. Morri & C. N. Bianchi, 2002. The Mediterranean coral Cladocora caespitosa (Anthozoa, Scleractinia). Biologia marina mediterranea (2001) 8(1): 259–263.Google Scholar
  84. Pérès, J. M. & J. Picard, 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Méditerranée. Recueil des Travaux de la Station marine d’Endoume 31(47): 1–137.Google Scholar
  85. Perez, T., J. Garrabou, S. Sartoretto, J. G. Harmelin, P. Francour & J. Vacelet, 2000. Mortalités massives d’invertébrés marins: un événement sans précédent en Méditerranée nord-occidentale. Comptes-rendus de l’Académie de Sciences de Paris, Sciences de la Vie 323: 853–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pinardi, N. & E. Masetti, 2000. Variability of the large scale general circulation of the Mediterranean Sea from observations and modelling: a review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 158: 153–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pipitone, C., F. Badalamenti F. & A. Sparrow, 2001. Contribution to the knowledge of Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Grapsidae), an exotic species spreading rapidly in Sicilian waters. Crustaceana 74: 1009–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pipitone, C., G. D’anna, M. Coppola, G. Di Stefano & F. Badalamenti, 2004. First record of the lessepsian fish Fistularia commersonii in the Western Mediterranean. Biologia marina mediterranea 11(3): 327.Google Scholar
  89. Por, F. D., 1978. Lessepsian migrations: the influx of Red Sea biota into the Mediterranean by way of the Suez Canal. Ecological Studies, 23. Springer, Heidelberg, 228 pp.Google Scholar
  90. Price, A. R. G., 2001. The marine food chain in relation to biodiversity. The Scientific World 1: 579–587.Google Scholar
  91. Relini, M., L. Orsi, V. Puccio & E. Azzurro, 2000. The exotic crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853) (Decapoda, Grapsidae) in the Central Mediterranean. Scientia marina 64: 337–340.Google Scholar
  92. Ribera Siguan, M. A., 2002. Review of non-native marine plants in the Mediterranean Sea. In Leppäkoski, E., S. Gollasch & S. Olenin (eds), Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distribution, impacts and management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht: 291–310.Google Scholar
  93. Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., M. Abbate, C. N. Bianchi, A. Peirano, G. Cerrati & V. Di Fesca, 2002a. Cambiamenti climatici e ambiente marino: effetti della temperatura e della salinità sulla crescita in acquario del corallo Cladocora caespitosa. Enea, Roma, RT/2002/22/Clim, 27 pp.Google Scholar
  94. Rodolfo Metalpa, R., M. Abbate, A. Peirano & C. N. Bianchi, 2002b. Crescita in acquario di coralli mediterranei. Energia, Ambiente e Innovazione 48(2): 86–87.Google Scholar
  95. Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., C. N. Bianchi, A. Peirano & C. Morri, 2000. Coral mortality in NW Mediterranean. Coral Reef 19(1): 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., A. Peirano, C. Morri & C. N. Bianchi, 1999. Coral calcification rates in the Mediterranean scleractinian coral Cladocora caespitosa (L. 1767). Proceedings of the Italian Association for Oceanology and Limnology 13(1): 291–299.Google Scholar
  97. Romano, J. C., N. Bensoussan, W. A. N. Younes & D. Arlhac, 2000. Anomalie thermique dans les eaux du golfe de Marseille durant l’été 1999. Une explication partielle de la mortalité d’invertébrés fixes? Comptes-rendus de l’Académie de Sciences de Paris, Sciences de la Vie 323: 415–427.Google Scholar
  98. Russo, G. F., G. Fasulo, A. Toscano & F. Toscano, 1990. On the presence of triton species (Charonia spp.) (Mollusca Gastropoda) in the Mediterranean Sea: ecological considerations. Bollettino malacologico 26(5–9): 91–104.Google Scholar
  99. Russo, G. F. & G. Villani, 2004. Spreading of the alloctonous species Percnon gibbesi in the central Tyrrhenian Sea (Decapoda, Grapsidae). Biologia marina mediterranea 11(3): 341.Google Scholar
  100. Sara, G., C. N. Bianchi & C. Morri, 2005. Mating behaviour of the newly-established ornate wrasse Thalassoma pavo (Osteichthyes, Labridae) in the Ligurian Sea (north western Mediterranean). Journal of the marine biological Association of the UK 85: 191–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sara, G., G. P. Gasparini, C. Morri, C. N. Bianchi & F. Cinelli, 2003. Reclutamento di gorgonie dopo un episodio di moria di massa in Mar Ligure orientale. Biologia marina mediterranea 10(2): 176–182.Google Scholar
  102. Sara, G. & U. Ugolini, 2001. Recent naturalization of the warm-water wrasse Thalassoma pavo (Pisces, Osteichthyes) in the Ligurian Sea. Proceedings of the Italian Association for Oceanology and Limnology 14: 249–258.Google Scholar
  103. Sarà, M., 1968. La biogeografia marina. In Enciclopedia della natura. G. Casini, Bologna, 709–742.Google Scholar
  104. Sartoni, G. & A. M. De Biasi, 1999. A survey of the marine algae of Milos Island, Greece. Cryptogamie et Algologie 20: 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sartoretto, S., M. Verlaque & J. Laborel, 1996. Age of settlement and accumulation rate of submarine “coralligène” (−10 to –60 m) of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea; relation to Holocene rise in sea level. Marine Geology 130: 317–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Southward, A. J., S. J. Hawkins & M. T. Burrows, 1995. Seventy years’ observations of changes in distribution and abundance of zooplankton and intertidal organisms in the western English Channel in relation to rising sea temperature. Journal of thermal Biology 20(1/2): 127–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Streftaris, N., A. Zenetos & E. Papathanassiou, 2005. Globalisation in marine ecosystems: the story of non-indigenous marine species across European seas. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 43: 419–453.Google Scholar
  108. Taviani, M., 2002. The Mediterranean benthos from late Miocene up to present: ten million years of dramatic climatic and geologic vicissitudes. Biologia marina mediterranea 9: 445–463.Google Scholar
  109. Vacchi, M., C. Morri, M. Modena, G. La Mesa & C. N. Bianchi, 2001. Temperature changes and warm-water species in the Ligurian Sea: the case of the ornate wrasse Thalassoma pavo (Linnaeus, 1758). Archivio di Oceanografia e Limnologia 22: 149–154.Google Scholar
  110. Vacchi, M., G. Sara, C. Morri, M. Modena, G. La Mesa, P. Guidetti & C. N. Bianchi, 1999. Dynamics of marine populations and climate change: lessons from a Mediterranean fish. Porcupine marine natural History Society Newsletter 3: 13–17.Google Scholar
  111. Verlaque, M., C. F. Boudouresque, A. Meinesz & V. Gravez, 2000. The Caulerpa racemosa complex (Caulerpales, Ulvophyceae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Botanica marina 43: 49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wirtz, P. & H. Debelius, 2003. Mediterranean and Atlantic invertebrate guide. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany, 305 pp.Google Scholar
  113. Zenetos, A., 1997. Diversity of marine bivalvia in Greek waters: effects of geography and environments. Journal of the marine biological Association of the UK 77: 463–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zenetos, A., S. Gofas, G. Russo & J. Templado, 2003. CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species, 3 - Molluscs. CIESM, Monaco, 376 pp.Google Scholar
  115. Zibrowius, H., 1980. Les scléractiniaires de la Méditerranée et de l’Atlantique nordoccidental. Mémoires de l’Institut océanographique, Monaco 11: 1–284.Google Scholar
  116. Zibrowius, H., 1983. Nouvelles données sur la distribution de quelques scléractiniaires méditerranéens à l’est et à l’ouest du détroit de Gibraltar. Rapports et procès-verbaux des réunions de la Commission international pour l’Exploration scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée 28(3): 307–309.Google Scholar
  117. Zibrowius, H., 1991. Ongoing modification of the Mediterranean marine fauna and flora by the establishment of exotic species. Mésogée 51: 83–107.Google Scholar
  118. Zibrowius, H., 1995. The “southern” Astroides calycularis in the Pleistocene of the northern Mediterranean – an indicator of climatic changes (Cnidaria, Scleractinia). Geobios 28(1): 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zibrowius, H. & A. Grieshaber, 1977. Scléractiniaires de l’Adriatique. Tethys 4: 375–384.Google Scholar
  120. Zunino, M. & A. Zullini, 1995. Biogeografia: la dimensione spaziale dell’evoluzione. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano, 310 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DipTeRis, Dipartimento per lo studio del Territorio e delle sue RisorseUniversità di Genova Corso EuropaGenovaItaly

Personalised recommendations