, 570:217 | Cite as

The potential for biological control of invasive alien aquatic weeds in Europe: a review

  • André Gassmann
  • Matthew J. W. Cock
  • Richard Shaw
  • Harry C. Evans


A retrospective analysis shows that invasive, alien, free-floating and emergent aquatic weeds in Europe are good targets for classical biological control, and that genus-specific chrysomelid and curculionid beetles offer the most potential. Ludwigia spp., Azolla filiculoides, Lemna minuta, Crassula helmsii and Hydrocotyle ranunculoides should be prioritised as targets. Fungal pathogens have been under-utilised as classical agents but, whilst they may have some potential against free-floating weeds, they appear to be poor candidates against submerged species, although the suitability of arthropod agents against these difficult targets still merits investigation. The use of indigenous pathogens as inundative agents (mycoherbicides) shows some promise.


invasive alien aquatic weeds classical biological control free-floating species emergent species Curculionidae Chrysomelidae 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • André Gassmann
    • 1
  • Matthew J. W. Cock
    • 1
  • Richard Shaw
    • 2
  • Harry C. Evans
    • 2
  1. 1.CABI Bioscience Center SwitzerlandDelémontSwitzerland
  2. 2.CABI Bioscience UK Center (Ascot)BerkshireUK

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