Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 563, Issue 1, pp 329–355 | Cite as

Report on the Polycystididae (Rhabdocoela, Kalyptorhynchia) from Australia, with the Description of Twelve New Species and Six New Genera

  • Wim R. Willems
  • Ernest R. Schockaert
  • Tom J. Artois
Primary Research Paper

Abstract

Twelve new species of Polycystididae Graff, 1905 are described from the Australian east coast. Nine of them could not be placed in any of the existing genera, and therefore six new genera are erected. Alchoides n. gen. differs from all other polycystidid genera by the presence of a bundle of glands that opens into the distal part of the male atrium (accessory vesicle type V). Two species are included in the genus, A. alchoides n. sp. and A. dittmannae n. sp., which differ from each other in the shape of the stylet. Ametochus gehrkei n. gen n. sp. can be distinguished from other polycystidids by the presence of a prostate vesicle type III associated with a prostate stylet type III, combined with the presence of an accessory stylet type III, while a prostate stylet type II is lacking. Typical for Arrawarria inexpectata n. gen n. sp. is the combined presence of an armed cirrus with a prostate vesicle type II connected to a prostate stylet type II. Two species are assigned to the new genus Duplexostylus n. gen.: D. rowei n. sp. and D. winsori n. sp. These two species have two unique features: a prostate vesicle type IV directly connected to a prostate stylet type III and an asymmetrical septum that surrounds the proximal part of the male atrium. They can be distinguished from each other by differences in the detailed construction of their stylets. Two new species are placed in the new genus Stradorhynchus n. gen.: S. caecus n. sp. and S. terminalis n. sp. They have unpaired gonads and a prostate vesicle type IV connected to a prostate stylet type IV, which combination of characters makes them unique within the Polycystididae. The two species differ from each other in the shape and size of the stylet. Triaustrorhynchus armatus n. gen., n. sp. is the first species of the Polycystididae to have three types of stylet in the male atrium: a prostate stylet type II, a prostate stylet type III and an accessory stylet type III. Three new species could be placed in existing genera: Cincturorhynchus monaculeus n. sp., Paraustrorhynchus caligatus n. sp. and Polycystis australis n. sp. All three differ from their congeners in the form and dimensions of their stylets. All newly described species are discussed, giving their similarities and differences with resembling species. Austrorhynchus hawaiiensis Karling, 1977 is reported for the first time in Australia, and the Australian population is compared with populations from other regions. The presence of Gyratrix hermaphroditus Ehrenberg, 1831, one new species of Paulodora Marcus, 1948 and a new genus of Typhlopolycystidinae Evdonin, 1977 is mentioned.

Keywords

systematics taxonomy biodiversity ‘Turbellaria’ Kalyptorhynchia Polycystididae 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Artois T. J. and Schockaert E. R. (1998). A cladistic re-assessment of the Polycystis species complex (Polycystididae, Eukalyptorhynchia). Hydrobiologia 383: 97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Artois T. J. and Schockaert E. R. (1999). Two new species of the genus Duplacrorhynchus Schockaert & Karling, 1970, with remarks on relationships within the genus and on the Duplacrorhynchinae (Platyhelminthes, Polycystididae). Belgian Journal of Zoology 129: 235–244Google Scholar
  3. Artois T. J. and Schockaert E. R. (2003). Primary homology assessment in the male atrial system of the Polycystididae (Platyhelminthes: Eukalyptorhynchia). Zoologischer Anzeiger 242: 179–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Artois T. J. and Schockaert E. R. (2005). Primary homology assessment of structures in the female atrial system among species of the Polycystididae (Rhabditophora, Eukalyptorhynchia). Invertebrate Biology 124: 109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Curini-Galletti M. C. and Puccinelli I. (1990). The Gyratrix hermaphroditus species complex (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia) in the Darwin Area (Northern Territory, Australia). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 109: 368–379 Google Scholar
  6. Curini-Galletti M. C. and Puccinelli I. (1998). The Gyratrix hermaphroditus species complex (Kalyptorhynchia: Polycystididae) in marine habitats of eastern Australia. Hydrobiologia 383: 287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dittmann S. (1991). Plathelminths in tropical intertidal sediments of northeastern Australia. Hydrobiologia 227: 369–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Evdonin L.A. (1970). A new genus of Turbellarians from the family Polycystididae (Neorhabdocoela). Zoological Journal (Moscow) 49: 781–785 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. Evdonin L. A. (1977). Turbellaria Kalyptorhynchia in the fauna of the USSR and adjacent areas. Fauna USSR 115: 1–400 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. Joffe B. I. and Kornakova E. E. (2001). Flatworm phylogeneticist: Between molecular hammer and morphological anvil. In: Littlewood, D. T. J. and Bray, R. A. (eds) Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes, pp 279–291. Taylor and Francis, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Karling T. G. (1956). Morphologisch-histologische Untersuchungen an den mänlichen Atrialorganen der Kalyptorhynchia (Turbellaria). Arkiv för Zoologi 2: 187–279 Google Scholar
  12. Karling T. G. (1977). Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Austrorhynchus (Turbellaria, Kalyptorhynchia). Mikrofauna des Meerenbodens 61: 153–165Google Scholar
  13. Karling T. G. (1986). Free-living marine Rhabdocoela (Platyhelminthes) from the N. American Pacific coast. With remarks on species from other areas. Zoologica Scripta 15: 201–219 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Karling T. G. and Schockaert E. R. (1977). Anatomy and systematics of some Polycystididae (Turbellaria, Kalyptorhynchia) from the Pacific and S. Atlantic. Zoologica Scripta 6: 5–19Google Scholar
  15. Karling T. G., Mack-Fira V. and Dörjes J. (1972). First report on marine microturbellarians from Hawaii. Zoologica Scripta 1: 251–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Littlewood D. T. J. and Olson P. D. (2001). Small subunit rDNA and the Platyhelminthes: Signal, noise, conflict and compromise. In: Littlewood, D. T. J. and Bray, R. A. (eds) Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes, pp 262–278. Taylor and Francis, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Littlewood D. T. J., Bray R. A. and Herniou E. A. (1999). Phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes and the evolution of parasitism. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68: 257–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schockaert E. R. (1982). Turbellaria from Somalia II. Kalyptorhynchia (Part 2). Monitore Zoologico Italiano (N.S.) Suppl. 17: 81–96Google Scholar
  19. Schockaert E. R. (1996). The importance of turbellarians in ecosystems. In: Hall, G. S. (eds) Methods for the examination of organismal diversity in soils and sediments, pp 211–225. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  20. Watson N. A. (2001). Insights from comparative spermatology in the ‘turbellarian’ Rhabdocoela. In: Littlewood, D. T. J. and Bray, R. A. (eds) Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes, pp 217–230. Taylor and Francis, London and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Willems W. R., Artois T. J., Vermin W. A., Backeljau T. and Schockaert E. R. (2004). Reports on the free-living Platyhelminthes from Australia: Typhloplanoida, with the description of three new taxa. Zoological Science 21: 333–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Willems W. R., Artois T. J., Backeljau T. and Schockaert E. R. (2005). Typhloplanoida (Platyhelminthes, Rhabdocoela) from New Caledonia and eastern Australia, with the description of six new taxa. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 32: 79–98Google Scholar
  23. Willems W. R., Wallberg A., Jondelius U., Littlewood D. T. J., Backeljau T., Schockaert E. R. and Artois T. J. (2006). Filling a gap in the phylogeny of flatworms: relationships within the Rhabdocoela (Platyhelminthes), inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. Zoologica Scripta 35: 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wim R. Willems
    • 1
  • Ernest R. Schockaert
    • 1
  • Tom J. Artois
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Group Biodiversity, Phylogeny and Population Studies, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Department of SBGHasselt UniversityDiepenbeekBelgium

Personalised recommendations