Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 557, Issue 1, pp 31–40 | Cite as

Reproductive Investment in Brachyura

  • R. G. Hartnoll
Review Paper

Abstract

The costs of reproduction in brachyurans are reviewed. In both sexes a number of aspects of reproductive behaviour and physiology can result in higher mortality and/or slower growth. Mortality can be increased by the greater exposure or the reduced mobility of the crabs: these are illustrated by selected examples, but there is a dearth of quantitative data. Slower growth can result from reduced feeding, or the diversion of resources to reproduction. These have been better quantified. The investment by females in egg production is examined in detail. In free living crabs investment per brood in dry weight terms ranges from 3–21%, with a mean of about 11%. This investment is constrained by body morphology. However, in commensal/parasitic crabs the value rises to 60–90%: reasons for this are discussed. Many crabs produce more than one brood per year, and annual investment rises with brood number, though with some trade off. For temperate free living species annual investment ranges from 6–64%, with a mean of 22%. However tropical species produce more broods, and annual investment can reach 250%. In both temperate and tropical regimes there is a higher annual investment by commensal/parasitic species, of up to 470%. Priorities for future research are outlined.

Keywords

Brachyura reproduction investment energy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baeza, J. A., Fernández, M. 2002Active brood care in Cancer setosus (Crustacea: Decapoda): the relationship between female behaviour, embryo oxygen consumption and the cost of broodingFunctional Ecology16241251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bliss, D. E., Montfrans, J., Montfrans, M., Boyer, J. R. 1978Behaviour and growth of the land crab Gecarcinus lateralis (Fréminville) in Southern FloridaBulletin of the American Museum of Natural History160111151Google Scholar
  3. Broekhuysen, G. J. 1955The breeding and growth of Hymenosoma orbiculare Desm. (Crustacea, Brachyura)Annals of the South African Museum41313343Google Scholar
  4. Bryant, A. D., Hartnoll, R. G. 1995Reproductive investment in two spider crabs with different breeding strategiesJournal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology188261275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christy, J. H., Salmon, M. 1984Ecology and evolution of mating systems of fiddler crabs (genus Uca)Biological Reviews59483509Google Scholar
  6. Ens, B. J., Klaasen, M., Zwarts, L. 1993Flocking and feeding in the fiddler crab (Uca tangeri): prey availability as risk-taking behaviourNetherlands Journal of Sea Research31477494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hartnoll, R. G. 1965The biology of spider crabs: a comparison of British and Jamaican speciesCrustaceana9116Google Scholar
  8. Hartnoll, R. G. 1968Reproduction of the burrowing crab Corystes cassivelaunus (Pennant, 1777) (Decapoda, Brachyura)Crustaceana15165170Google Scholar
  9. Hartnoll, R. G., Smith, S. M. 1979Pair formation in the edible crab (Decapoda, Brachyura)Crustaceana362328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hiatt, R. W. 1948The biology of the lined shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes RandallPacific Science2135213Google Scholar
  11. Hines, A. H. 1982Allometric constraints and variables of reproductive effort in brachyuran crabsMarine Biology69309320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hines, A. H. 1988Fecundity and reproductive output in two species of deep sea crabs, Geryon fenneri and G. quinquedens (Decapoda, Brachyura)Journal of Crustacean Biology8557562Google Scholar
  13. Hines, A. H. 1991Fecundity and reproductive output in nine species of Cancer crabs (Crustacea, Brachyura, Cancridae)Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences48267275Google Scholar
  14. Hines, A. H. 1992Constraint on reproductive output in brachyuran crabs: pinnotherids test the ruleAmerican Zoologist32503511Google Scholar
  15. Jivoff, P. 1997Sexual competition among male blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Biological Bulletin193368380Google Scholar
  16. Koga, T., Blackwell, P. R. Y., Jennions, M. D., Christy, J. H. 1998Elevated predation risk changes mating behaviour and courtship in a fiddler crabProceedings of the Royal Society of London B26513851390Google Scholar
  17. Kotb, M. M. A., Hartnoll, R. G. 2002Aspects of the growth and reproduction of the coral gall crab Hapalocarcinus marsupialis Journal of Crustacean Biology22558566Google Scholar
  18. Paul, A. J. 1984Mating frequency and viability of stored sperm in the tanner crab Chionoecetes bairdi (Decapoda, Majidae)Journal of Crustacean Biology4375381Google Scholar
  19. Paul, A. J., Fuji, A. 1989Energetics of the Alaskan crab Chionoecetes bairdi (Decapoda: Majidae)Journal of Crustacean Biology92536Google Scholar
  20. Robinson, B. W., Doyle, R. W. 1985Trade-off between male reproduction (amplexus) and growth in the amphipod Gammarus lawrencianus Biological Bulletin168482488Google Scholar
  21. Rondeau, A., Sainte-Marie, B. 2001Variable mate-guarding time and sperm allocation by male snow crabs (Chionoecetes opilio) in response to sexual competition, and their impact on the mating success of femalesBiological Bulletin201204217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Sainte-Marie, B., Hazel, F. 1992Moulting and mating of snow crabs, Chionoecetes opilio (O. Fabricius), in shallow waters of the northwestern Gulf of Saint LawrenceCanadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences4912821293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Salmon, M. 1987On the reproductive behaviour of the fiddler crab Uca thayeri, with comparisons to U. pugilator and U. vocans: evidence for behavioural convergenceJournal of Crustacean Biology72544Google Scholar
  24. Schöne, H. 1968Agonistic and sexual display in aquatic and semiterrestrial brachyuran crabsAmerican Zoologist8641654Google Scholar
  25. Skov, M. W., 2001. Reproduction and feeding ecology of East African mangrove crabs, and their influence on forest energy flow. Ph.D. thesis, Liverpool UniversityGoogle Scholar
  26. Skov, M. W., Hartnoll, R. G. 2001Comparative suitability of binocular observation, burrow counting and excavation for the quantification of the mangrove fiddler crab Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards)Hydrobiologia449201222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sparkes, T. C., Keogh, D. P., Parry, R. A. 1996Energetic costs of mate guarding behaviour in male stream dwelling isopodsOecologia106166171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sudha, K., Anilkumar, G. 1996Seasonal growth and reproduction in a highly fecund brachyuran crab, Metopograpsus messor (Forskal) (Grapsidae)Hydrobiologia3191521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Valiela, I., Babiec, D. F., Atherton, W., Seitzinger, S., Krebs, C. 1974Some consequences of sexual dimorphism: feeding in male and female fiddler crabs, Uca pugnax (Smith)Biological Bulletin147652660Google Scholar
  30. Wicksten, M. K. 1983Camouflage in marine invertebratesOceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review21177193Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Port Erin Marine LaboratoryUniversity of LiverpoolPort ErinBritish Isles

Personalised recommendations