Advertisement

Hydrobiologia

, Volume 562, Issue 1, pp 17–40 | Cite as

An Overview of Atmospheric Deposition Chemistry over the Alps: Present Status and Long-term Trends

  • M. RogoraEmail author
  • R. Mosello
  • S. Arisci
  • M. C. Brizzio
  • A. Barbieri
  • R. Balestrini
  • P. Waldner
  • M. Schmitt
  • M. Stähli
  • A. Thimonier
  • M. Kalina
  • H. Puxbaum
  • U. Nickus
  • E. Ulrich
  • A. Probst
Article

Abstract

Several research programs monitoring atmospheric deposition have been launched in the Alpine countries in the last few decades. This paper uses data from previous and ongoing projects to: (i) investigate geographical variability in wet deposition chemistry over the Alps; (ii) assess temporal trends of the major chemical variables in response to changes in the atmospheric emission of pollutants; (iii) discuss the potential relationship between the status of atmospheric deposition and its effects on forest ecosystems in the alpine and subalpine area, focusing particularly on nitrogen input. We also present results of studies performed at a local level on specific topics such as long-term changes in lead deposition and the role of occult deposition in total nitrogen input. The analysis performed here highlights the marked geographical variability of atmospheric deposition in the Alpine region. Apart from some evidence of geographically limited effects, due to local sources, no obvious gradients were identified in the major ion deposition. The highest ionic loads were recorded in areas in the foothills of the Alps, such as the pre-alpine area in North-Western Italy and the area of Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Trend analysis shows a widespread decrease in the acidity of precipitation in the last 15–20 years as a consequence of the reduced emission of S compounds. On the other hand, nitrate concentrations in rain have not changed so much, and ammonium has decreased significantly only at the Austrian sampling sites. The deposition of N is still well above the estimated critical loads of nutrient N at some forest sites in the alpine and subalpine areas, thus confirming the critical situation of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems regarding N inputs. Existing data highlights the importance of continuously monitoring atmospheric deposition chemistry in the Alpine area, taking account of acidifying elements, nutrients and other pollutants such as heavy metals and organic compounds. There is also a need for unifying sampling and analytical methods in order to obtain comparable data from the different regions of the Alps.

Keywords

precipitation chemistry wet deposition forest nitrogen trend 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aber, J. D., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Steudler, P., Melillo, J. 1989Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystemsBioscience39378386Google Scholar
  2. Aber, J. D., McDowell, W., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Magill, A., Berntson, G., Kamakea, M., McNulty, S., Currie, W., Rustad, L., Fernandez, I. 1998Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems: hypothesis revisitedBioScience48921934Google Scholar
  3. Alcamo, J.Shaw, R.Hordijk, L. eds. 1990The RAINS Model of AcidificationKluwer Academic PublishersDordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  4. Avila, A., Rodà, F. 2002Assessing decadal changes in rainwater alkalinity at a rural site in the Montseny Mountains (NE Spain)Atmospheric Environment3628812890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azienda Regionale delle Foreste, 1998. Soil experiments to improve the knowledge of the atmospheric pollution. Report CE 94.60 IT.00.90 (Reg.CEE 2157/92): 303.Google Scholar
  6. Balestrini, R., Arese, C., Prina, M. 2002Nitrogen retention and export in an alpine catchment in Valtellina: an example from the Italian AlpsJournal of Austrian Forestry119205216Google Scholar
  7. Balestrini, R., Martino, N., Arese, C. 2003Chimica della soluzione circolante in una foresta di conifere alpina: inferenze sul ciclo dell’azotoLinea Ecologica353842Google Scholar
  8. Barbieri, A., S. Pozzi, C. Pradella, M. Veronesi, R. Mosello & M. Rogora, 2003. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the Lake Maggiore watershed (Italy and Switzerland): contribution to water acidification and soil N saturation. Proceedings of the 18th meeting of the ICP Waters Programme Task Force in Moscow. October 7–9, 2002. ICP-WATERS Report 71/2003, 55 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Barbieri, A. & S. Pozzi, 2001. Acidifying Deposition. Southern Switzerland. Environmental Documentation. Air. Vol. 134. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), Bern, 113 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Carrera, G., Fernandez, P., Grimalt, J. O., Ventura, M., Camarero, L., Catalan, J., Nickus, U., Thies, H., Psenner, R. 2002Atmospheric deposition of organochlorine compounds to remote high mountain lakes in EuropeEnvironmental Science and Technology3625812588CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cherubini, P., Innes, J. L. 2000 Switzerland: The Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research ProgrammeGosz, J. R.French, C.Sprott, P.White, M. eds. The International Long term Ecological Research Network. Perspectives from Participating NetworksU.S. Long Term Ecological Research Network Office, University of, AlbuquerqueNew Mexico5659Google Scholar
  12. Della Lucia, M., Marchetto, A., Mosello, R., Tartari, G. A. 1996Studies on a chemical gradient of atmospheric deposition from the Po Valley to the AlpsWater Air and Soil Pollution87171187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Vries, W. J., Klap, J. M., Erisman, W. 2000Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part I: hypotheses and approach to the studyWater Air and Soil Pollution199317333Google Scholar
  14. Vries, W., Vel, E., Reinds, G. J., Deelstra, H., Klap, J. M., Leeters, E. E. J. M., Hendriks, C. M. A., Kerkvoorden, M., Landmann, G., Herkendell, J. 2003Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe: 2. Atmospheric deposition and its impacts on soil solution chemistryForest Ecology and Management1749115Google Scholar
  15. Dise, N. B., Wright, R. F. 1995Nitrogen leaching from European forests in relation to nitrogen depositionForest Ecology and Management71153161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Draaijers, G. P. J., Erisman, J. W. 1995A canopy budget model to assess atmospheric deposition from throughfall measurementWater Air and Soil Pollution8522532258Google Scholar
  17. Draaijers, G. P. J., J. W. Erisman, G. Lovblad, T. Spranger & E. Vel, 1998. Quality and uncertainty aspects of forest deposition estimation using throughfall, stemflow and precipitation measurements. TNO report. TNO-MEP-R 98/093, 73 pp.Google Scholar
  18. EC-UN/ECE, 2001. Intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Europe. Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. Technical Report 2001, 177 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Erisman, J. W., Beier, C., Draaijers, G., Lindberg, S. 1994Review of deposition monitoring methodsTellus46B7993Google Scholar
  20. Evans, C. D., Cullen, J. M., Alewell, C., Kopáček, J., Marchetto, A., Moldan, F., Prechtel, A., Rogora, M., Veselý, J., Wright, R. F. 2001Recovery from acidification in European surface watersHydrology and Earth System Sciences5283297Google Scholar
  21. Ferrier, R. C., Jenkins, A., Wright, R. F., Schöpp, W., Barth, H. 2001Assessment of recovery of European surface waters from acidification, 1970–2000: Introduction to the Special IssueHydrology and Earth System Sciences5274282Google Scholar
  22. Fowler, D., Duyzer, J. H., Baldocchi, D. D. 1991Inputs of trace gases, particles and cloud droplets to terrestrial surfacesProceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh97B3539Google Scholar
  23. Grimalt, J. O., Fernandez, P., Berdie, L., Villanova, R., Catalan, J., Psenner, R., Hofer, R., Appleby, P. G., Rosseland, B. O., Lien, L., Massabuau, J. C., Battarbee, R. W. 2001Selective trapping of organochlorine compounds in mountain lakes of temperate areasEnvironmental Science and Technology3526902697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gundersen, P., Rasmussen, L. 1990Nitrification in forest soils: effects from nitrogen deposition on soil acidification and aluminum releaseReviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology113139Google Scholar
  25. Gundersen, P., Emmett, B. A., Kjonaas, O. J., Koopmans, C. J., Tietema, A. 1998Impact of nitrogen deposition on nitrogen cycling in forests: a synthesis of NITREX dataForest Ecology and Management1013755Google Scholar
  26. Hedin, L., Granat, L., Likens, G., Buishnad, T., Galloway, J., Buffer, J., Rohde, H. 1994Steep decline in atmospheric base cations in regions of Europe and North AmericaNature367351354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Herckes, P., Mirabel, P., Wortham, H. 2001Cloudwater deposition at a high elevation site in the Vosges Mountains (France)Science of the Total Environment2965975Google Scholar
  28. Hirsch, R. M., Slack, J. R., Smith, R. A. 1982Techniques of trend analysis for monthly water quality analysisWater Resources Research18107121Google Scholar
  29. ICP-Forests, 1994. International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests: Manual on Methods and Criteria for Harmonized Sampling, Assessment, Monitoring and Analysis of the Effects of Air Pollution on Forests. Programme Coordinating Centres Hamburg, Prague, 177 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Kahl, J. S., Norton, S. A., Fernandez, I. J., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Driscoll, C. T., Aber, J. D. 1993Experimental inducement of nitrogen saturation at the watershed scaleEnvironmental Science and Technology27565568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kalina, M. F., Puxbaum, H. 1994A study of the influence of riming of ice crystals on snow chemistry during different seasons in precipitating continental cloudsAtmospheric Environment2833113328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kalina, M. F., Puxbaum, H. 1995A high density network for wet only precipitation chemistry sampling in AustriaIdőjárás100159170Google Scholar
  33. Kalina, M. F., Puxbaum, H., Biebl, P. 1997Lead concentration in wet deposition-results of a ten year time series in Salzburg, AustriaInternational Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry67203211Google Scholar
  34. Kalina, M. F., Zambo, E., Puxbaum, H. 1998Assessment of wet, dry and occult deposition of sulphur and nitrogen at an Alpine siteEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research15358Google Scholar
  35. Kalina, M. F., Puxbaum, H., Tsakovski, S., Simeonov, V. 1999Time trends in the concentrations of lead in wet precipitation from rural and urban sites in AustriaChemosphere3825092515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kalina, M. F., Stopper, S., Zambo, E., Puxbaum, H. 2002Altitude-dependent wet, dry and occult nitrogen deposition in an alpine regionEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research21622Google Scholar
  37. Kandler, O., Innes, J. L. 1995Air pollution and forest decline in Central EuropeEnvironmental Pollution90171180CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Keller, H. M., H. Burch & M. Guecheva, 1989. The variability of water quality in a small mountainous region. In Ragone, S. (ed.), Regional Characterization of Water Quality: Proceedings of a Symposium Held During the Third Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, May 1989, Vol. 182. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication, 305–312.Google Scholar
  39. Klöti P., H. Keller & M. Guecheva, 1989. Effects of forest canopy on throughfall precipitation chemistry. In Baltimore Symposium, Baltimore, May 1989, Vol. 179. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication, 203–209.Google Scholar
  40. Leutert, G., 2001. NABEL, Luftbelastung 2001. Environmental Documentation, Vol. 343. Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests, and Landscape (SAEFL). 217 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Lindberg, S. E., Lovett, G. M. 1992Deposition and forest canopy interactions of airborn sulfur: results from the Integrated Forest StudyAtmospheric Environment26A14771492Google Scholar
  42. Lovett, G. M., Kinsman, J. D. 1990Atmospheric pollutant depositino to high-elevation ecosystemsAtmospheric Environment24A27672786Google Scholar
  43. Marchetti, F., D. Tait, P. Ambrosi & S. Minerbi, 2002. Atmospheric deposition at four forestry sites in the Alpine Region of Trentino-South Tyrol, Italy. In Mosello, R., B. cPetriccione & A. Marchetto (eds), Long-term Ecological Research in Italian Forest Ecosystems. Journal of Limnology 61: 148–157.Google Scholar
  44. Marchetto, A., Mosello, R., Psenner, R., Bendetta, G., Boggero, A., Tait, D., Tartari, G. A. 1995Factors affecting water chemistry of alpine lakesAquatic Sciences558189Google Scholar
  45. Marquardt, W., Brüggemann, E., Auel, R., Herrmann, H., Möller, D. 2001Trends of pollution in rain over East Germany caused by changing emissionsTellus53B529545Google Scholar
  46. Matson, P., Lohse, K., Hall, S. 2002The globalisation of nitrogen: consequences for terrestrial ecosystemsAmbio31113119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Miller, E. K., Friedland, A. J., Arons, E. A., Mohnen, V. A., Battles, J. J., Panek, J. A., Kadlecek, J., Johnson, A. H. 1993Atmospheric deposition to forests along an elevational gradient at Whiteface Mountain, NY, USAAtmospheric Environment27A21212136Google Scholar
  48. Mosello, R., M. Bianchi, M. C. Brizzio, H. Geiss, W. Layendecker, A. Marchetto, G. Serrini, L. G. Serrini, G. A. Tartari & H. Muntau, 1998. AQUACON – MedBas Project – Subproject no 6 – Acid rain analysis – Intercomparison 1/97: 65 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Mosello, R., Calderoni, A., Marchetto, A., Brizzio, M. C., Rogora, M., Passera, S., Tartari, G. A. 2001Nitrogen budget of Lago Maggiore: the relative importance of atmospheric deposition and catchment sourcesJournal of Limnology602740Google Scholar
  50. Mosello, R., M. C. Brizzio, D. Kotzias, A. Marchetto, D. Rembges & G. A. Tartari, 2002a. The chemistry of atmospheric deposition in Italy in the framework of the National Programme for Forest Ecosystem Control. In Mosello, R., B. Petriccione & A. Marchetto (eds), Long-term Ecological Research in Italian Forest Ecosystems. Journal of Limnology 61: 77–92.Google Scholar
  51. Mosello, R., J. Derome, K. Derome, E. Ulrich, T. Dahlin, A. Marchetto & G. A. Tartari, 2002b. Atmospheric deposition and soil solution Working Ring Test 2002 – Laboratory ring test for deposition and soil solution sample analyses between the countries participating in the ICP Forest level II monitoring programme. Office National des Forets, Département Recherche et Développement, ISBN 2-84027-261-8: 69 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Nilsson, J. & P. Grennfelt, (eds), 1988. Critical loads for sulphur and nitrogen. UNECE/Nordic Council workshop report, Skokloster, Sweden. March 1988 Nordic Council of Ministers Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  53. ONF, Département des Recherches Tecniques, 1996. Notice de présentation du réseau national de suivi à long terme des écosystèmes forestiers. ISBN 2-84207-021-6: 38.Google Scholar
  54. Paerl, H. W., Whitall, D. R. 1999Anthropogenically-derived atmospheric nitrogen deposition, marine eutrophication and harmful algal blooms expansion: is there a link?Ambio28307311Google Scholar
  55. Pahl, S., Winkler, P., Schneider, T., Arends, B., Schell, D., Maser, R., Wobrock, W. 1994Deposition of trace substances via cloud interception on a coniferous forest at Kleiner FeldbergJournal of Atmospheric Chemistry19231252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Posch, M., J. -P. Hettelingh, P. A. M. de Smet & R. J. Downing (eds), 1997. Calculation and Mapping of Critical Thresholds in Europe. CCE Status Report RIVM Bilthoven, Netherlands. Rep. No. 259101007, 97–102.Google Scholar
  57. Probst, A., D. Moncoulon, Y. Godderis & J. P. Party, 2003. National focal centre report: France. In Posch, M., J. P. Hettelingh, J. Slootweg & R. J. Downing (eds), Modelling and Mapping of critical loads thresholds in Europe. Status Report RIVM, Rep. No 259101013/2003, 73–80.Google Scholar
  58. Psenner, R. 1989Chemistry of high mountain lakes in siliceous catchments of the Central Eastern AlpsAquatic Sciences51108128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Reuss, J. O., Johnson, D. W. 1985Effects of soil processes on the acidification of water by acid depositionJournal of Environmental Quality142631Google Scholar
  60. Rabalais, N. 2002Nitrogen in aquatic ecosystemsAmbio31102112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Rogora, M., Marchetto, A., Mosello, R. 2001Trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition and surface waters in the Lago Maggiore watershedHydrology and Hearth System Sciences5379390Google Scholar
  62. Rogora, M., Mosello, R., Marchetto, A. 2004Long-term trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition in North-Western Italy: the role of increasing Saharan dust depositionTellus56B426434Google Scholar
  63. Schindler, D. W. 1988Effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystemsScience239149157Google Scholar
  64. Schuurkes, J. A. A. R. 1986Atmospheric ammonium sulphate deposition and its role in the acidification and nitrogen enrichment of poorly buffered aquatic systemsExperientia42351357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sen, P. K. 1968Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall’s tauJournal of the American Statistical Association6313791389Google Scholar
  66. Tamm, C. O. 1991Nitrogen in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Questions of Productivity, Vegetational Changes, and Ecosystem Stability. Ecological StudiesSpringerNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Tarrasón, L. & J. Schaug, 2000. Transboundary acidification and eutrophication in Europe. EMEP summary report 2000. EMEP Report 1/2000. Meteorological Synthesizing Centre West of EMEP Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  68. Tartari, G. A., Mosello, R. 1997Metodologie analitiche e controlli di qualità nel laboratorio chimico dell’Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia del Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheDocumenta Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia60160Google Scholar
  69. Thimonier, A., Schmitt, M., Waldner, P., Rihm, B. 2005Atmospheric deposition on Swiss long-term forest ecosystem research (LWF) plotsEnvironmental monitoring and assessment10481118CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Traaen, T. S. & J. L. Stoddard, 1995. An assessment of nitrogen leaching from watersheds included in ICP on waters. NIVA Report No. 86001, 1–35.Google Scholar
  71. Ulrich, B. 1983Interaction of forest canopies with atmospheric constituents: SO2, alkali and earth alkali cations and chlorideUlrich, B.Pankrath, J. eds. Effects of Accumulation of Air Pollutants in Forest EcosystemsReidelDordrecht3345Google Scholar
  72. Ulrich, E., P. Coddeville & M. Lanier, 2002. Retombées atmosphériques humides en France entre 1993 et 1998. Données et références. Coordination technique de la surveillance de la qualité de l’air. ADEME Editions, Paris, 124 pp.Google Scholar
  73. UN-ECE, 1996a. 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution and its Protocols United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, New York and Geneva, 79 pp.Google Scholar
  74. UN-ECE, 1996b. Manual on Methodologies and Criteria for Mapping Critical Levels/Loads and Geographical Areas Where they are Exceeded. UN/ECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Federal Environmental Agency, Texte UmweltBundesAmt 71/96 Berlin.Google Scholar
  75. UN-ECE1998Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests. Manual on Methods and Criteria for Harmonized Sampling, Assessment, Monitoring and Analysis on the Effects of Air Pollution on ForestsFederal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products (BFH)HamburgGoogle Scholar
  76. UN-ECE, 1999. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone. United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe Geneva, Switzerland, 63 pp.Google Scholar
  77. Leeuwen, E. P., Hendriks, K. C. M. A., Klap, M., Vries, W., Jong, E., Erisman, W. 2000Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part II. Estimation of stress induced by meteorology and air pollutantsWater Air and Soil Pollution119335362Google Scholar
  78. Wright, R. F., Rasmussen, L. 1998Introduction to the NITREX and EXMAN projectsForest Ecology and Management10118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wright, R. F., Alewell, C., Cullen, J. M., Evans, C. D., Marchetto, A., Moldan, F., Prechtel, A., Rogora, M. 2001Trends in nitrogen deposition and leaching in acid sensitive streams in EuropeHydrology and Earth System Science5299310Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Rogora
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Mosello
    • 1
  • S. Arisci
    • 1
  • M. C. Brizzio
    • 1
  • A. Barbieri
    • 2
  • R. Balestrini
    • 3
  • P. Waldner
    • 4
  • M. Schmitt
    • 4
  • M. Stähli
    • 4
  • A. Thimonier
    • 4
  • M. Kalina
    • 5
  • H. Puxbaum
    • 5
  • U. Nickus
    • 6
  • E. Ulrich
    • 7
  • A. Probst
    • 8
  1. 1.CNR Institute of Ecosystem StudyVerbania PallanzaItaly
  2. 2.Cantonal Agency for Water Protection and TreatmentUPDA - SPAASCantone TicinoSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Hydrobiology Applied to Water PollutionCNR Water Research InstituteMilanItaly
  4. 4.Snow and Landscape ResearchWSL, Swiss Federal Institute for ForestBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  5. 5.Institute of Analytical Chemistry (IAC)Vienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria
  6. 6.Institute of Meteorology and GeophysicsUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  7. 7.Office National des ForêtsFontainebleauFrance
  8. 8.Laboratoire des Mécanismes et Transferts en Géologie (LMTG), UMR 5563, CNRS/IRD/UPSToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations